我们银河系中心的超重黑洞刚刚变得极度饥饿

2019年9月23日19:25:54我们银河系中心的超重黑洞刚刚变得极度饥饿已关闭评论 91 3432字阅读11分26秒

"We have never seen anything like this in the 24 years we have studied the supermassive black hole."

"在我们研究超重黑洞的24年里,我们从未见过这样的事情。"

我们银河系中心的超重黑洞刚刚变得极度饥饿Image credit:Nicolle Fuller/National Science Foundation 图片来源:Nicolle fuller/国家科学基金会

(TMU)—Scientists believe there is a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy named Sagittarius A*.This black hole is 26,000 light-years from the Earth and approximately 4 million times the mass of the Sun.

科学家们认为,在银河系的中心有一颗超重黑洞,名为人马座 a*。这个黑洞距离地球26000光年,质量大约是太阳的400万倍。

While Sgr A*has always been thought of as a quiet,relatively modest black hole,new observations show a recent burst of unprecedented activity suggesting it is on a sudden feeding frenzy.

尽管 Sgr a*一直被认为是一个安静的、相对温和的黑洞,但新的观测显示,最近出现了一系列前所未有的活动,表明它正处于一种突如其来的疯狂吞噬之中。

The observations comes from a research team at the UCLA Galactic Center Group,which published their work in Astrophysical Journal Letters.Using the W.M.Keck Observatory in Hawaii and the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile,the team gathered 13,000 images of the accretion disk area of the black hole.

这些观测结果来自加州大学洛杉矶分校银河中心集团的一个研究小组,该小组在《天文物理期刊志上发表了他们的研究成果。利用夏威夷的 w.m.凯克天文台和智利的欧洲南方天文台的甚大望远镜,研究小组收集了13000张黑洞吸积盘区域的图像。

The accretion disk is where enormous amounts of gas,dust,and radiation accumulate and orbit outside the "point of no return"—or the event horizon.According to their observations,there has been a sudden and"unprecedented"increase in brightness from the Sgr A*accretion disk.

吸积盘是大量气体、尘埃和辐射积聚的地方,它们围绕着"无法回头的点"——或者说事件视界——运行。根据他们的观测,来自 Sgr a*吸积盘的亮度突然出现了"前所未有"的增加。

The paper's co-author,Andrea Ghez,UCLA professor of physics and astronomy,stated:

论文的合著者,加州大学洛杉矶分校物理学和天文学教授安德里亚·盖兹说:

"We have never seen anything like this in the 24 years we have studied the supermassive black hole.It's usually a pretty quiet,wimpy black hole on a diet.We don't know what is driving this big feast."

"在我们研究超重黑洞的24年里,我们从未见过这样的事情。这通常是一个相当安静,软弱的黑洞在节食。我们不知道是什么在推动这场盛宴。"

Scientists say the increase in brightness means the black hole is consuming more interstellar material,including stars,planets,dust,gas,and asteroids.One of the research team's lead authors originally believed the glow was a star because Sagittarius A*had never been observed at that level of brightness.

科学家说,亮度的增加意味着黑洞正在消耗更多的星际物质,包括恒星、行星、尘埃、气体和小行星。这个研究小组的主要作者之一最初认为这种发光现象是一颗恒星,因为人们从未观测到人马座 a*处于这种亮度水平。

The advanced techniques used to gather this information is perhaps one of the most noteworthy aspects of this story.The researchers employed speckle holography to extract and analyze distant information from Sgr A*during the last 24 years.Another technique,called adaptive optics,eliminates distortion from Earth's atmosphere.Combined,researchers were able to conclude that this is the largest amount of radiation detected from our galaxy's black hole in nearly a quarter of a century.

用于收集这些信息的高级技术也许是这个故事中最值得注意的方面之一。在过去的24年里,研究人员利用散斑全息术提取和分析 Sgr a*的远距离信息。另一种技术,叫做自适应光学,可以消除地球大气的扭曲。综合起来,研究人员能够得出结论,这是近四分之一个世纪以来从我们银河系的黑洞探测到的最大量的辐射。

Mark Morris,another co-author and UCLA professor of physics and astronomy,speculated on the cause of the increase:

另一位合著者、加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)物理学和天文学教授马克莫里斯(Mark Morris)推测了这种增长的原因:

"The big question is whether the black hole is entering a new phase—for example if the spigot has been turned up and the rate of gas falling down the black hole'drain'has increased for an extended period—or whether we have just seen the fireworks from a few unusual blobs of gas falling in."

"最大的问题是,黑洞是否正在进入一个新的阶段ーー例如,黑洞的龙头是否打开了,气体落入黑洞'排水口'的速度是否已经增加了很长一段时间ーー或者我们是否只是看到了一些不寻常的气体团落入黑洞的烟火。"

Scientists believe that by recording and analyzing such increases in black hole activity,they can get a better understanding of how black holes evolve and impact the development of galaxies.

科学家们相信,通过记录和分析黑洞活动的增加,他们可以更好地了解黑洞是如何进化和影响星系的发展的。

来源:https://themindunleashed.com/2019/09/supermassive-black-hole-hungry.html

新闻最后更新:2019-9-26
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  • 本文由 发表于 2019年9月23日19:25:54
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