俄罗斯,中国,金砖国家计划新的国际储备货币

2022年7月27日17:42:39新闻俄罗斯,中国,金砖国家计划新的国际储备货币已关闭评论2951字数 8281阅读27分36秒阅读模式
摘要

在金砖国家峰会期间,俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔 · 普京宣布,五个成员国——巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非——计划发行一种“新的全球储备货币”。

By Jamie Redman By Jamie Redman 作者: Jamie Redman

During the last month, the West has been struggling with red hot inflation and energy prices skyrocketing higher. Politicians in the UK, Europe, and the US have been trying to blame the economic calamity on a number of things like the Ukraine-Russia war and Covid-19.

在过去的一个月里,西方国家一直在与炽热的通货膨胀和高涨的能源价格作斗争。英国、欧洲和美国的政治家们一直试图将这场经济灾难归咎于乌克兰-俄罗斯战争和2019冠状病毒疾病。

Data from last month’s consumer prices in America and Europe have climbed to all-time highs and many analysts say Western countries are in a recession or about to experience one. Meanwhile, at the end of June, members of the BRICS nations met at the 14th BRICS Summit to discuss world affairs.

美国和欧洲上个月的消费价格数据已经攀升到历史新高,许多分析师说,西方国家正处于或即将经历衰退。与此同时,6月底,金砖国家成员在第14届金砖国家领导人会议上讨论了国际事务。

During the BRICS Summit, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that the five-member economies — Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa – plan to issue a “new global reserve currency”.

在金砖国家峰会期间,俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔 · 普京宣布,五个成员国——巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非——计划发行一种“新的全球储备货币”。

“The matter of creating the international reserve currency based on the basket of currencies of our countries is under review,” Putin said at the time. “We are ready to openly work with all fair partners,” he added. Additionally, Turkey, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia are considering joining the BRICS group. Analysts believe the BRICS move to create a reserve currency is an attempt to undermine the US dollar and the IMF’s SDRs.

普京当时表示: “根据我们国家的一篮子货币创建国际储备货币的问题正在审议之中。”。“我们愿意与所有公平的合作伙伴公开合作,”他补充说。此外,土耳其、埃及和沙特阿拉伯正在考虑加入金砖国家集团。分析人士认为,金砖国家创建储备货币的举措是为了削弱美元和 IMF 的特别提款权。

“This is a move to address the perceived US hegemony of the IMF,” ING Global Head of Markets Chris Turner, explained at the end of June. “It will allow BRICS to build their own sphere of influence and unit of currency within that sphere.”

荷兰国际集团(ING)全球市场主管克里斯•特纳(Chris Turner)6月底解释称: “此举是为了应对 IMF 眼中的美国霸权。”。“这将使金砖国家能够在这一领域建立自己的势力范围和货币单位。”

While the news of a reserve currency created by BRICS may be a surprise to some, specific accounts about the member countries countering the US dollar have been reported on for quite some time. At the end of May 2022, a Global Times report noted members were urged to end their dependence on the dollar’s global dominance.

虽然金砖国家建立储备货币的消息可能会让一些人感到意外,但关于成员国对抗美元的具体报道已经出现了相当一段时间。2022年5月底,《环球时报》的一份报告指出,各成员国被敦促结束对美元全球主导地位的依赖。

Putin explained the following month that “contacts between Russian business circles and the business community of the BRICS countries have intensified”. The Russian President further noted that Indian retail chain stores would be hosted in Russia, and Chinese cars and hardware would be imported regularly. Putin’s recent statements and commentary at the BRICS Summit have made people believe the BRICS members are not “just a ‘talk shop’ anymore”.

普京在接下来的一个月解释说,“俄罗斯工商界与金砖国家工商界之间的联系已经加强”。俄罗斯总统进一步指出,印度零售连锁店将设在俄罗斯,中国的汽车和硬件将定期进口。普京最近在金砖国家峰会上的声明和评论使人们相信金砖国家成员不再是“一个‘清谈俱乐部’”。

In addition to South Africa, Russia has also increased foreign aid and has delivered weapons to Sub-Saharan African countries. Furthermore, Putin and other BRICS leaders have been targeting US hegemony and exceptionalism in specific statements published by the media.

除了南非,俄罗斯还增加了对外援助,并向撒哈拉以南非洲国家提供了武器。此外,普京和其他金砖国家领导人在媒体发表的具体声明中一直在抨击美国的霸权主义和例外主义。

At this year’s St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, Putin addressed the crowd with a 70-minute speech and talked about the US ruling the world’s financial system for years. “Nothing lasts forever,” Putin said. “(Americans) think of themselves as exceptional. And if they think they’re exceptional, that means everyone else is second class,” the Russian President told the forum attendees.

在今年的圣彼得堡国际经济论坛(St. Petersburg International Economic Forum)上,普京向与会者发表了70分钟的演讲,并谈到了美国统治世界金融体系多年的问题。“世事无常(1979年小说) ,”普京表示。“(美国人)认为自己与众不同。如果他们认为自己与众不同,那就意味着其他人都是二等公民,”俄罗斯总统告诉与会者。

Speaking with Russian ambassadors in a biennial speech, Putin said the West was weakening a great deal in terms of economic power. 

普京在两年一度的演讲中与俄罗斯大使交谈时说,西方国家的经济实力正在大大削弱。

“Domestic socio-economic problems that have become worse in industrialised countries as a result of the (economic) crisis are weakening the dominant role of the so-called historical West,” Putin remarked to the ambassadors. “Be ready for any development of the situation, even for the most unfavorable development.”

“由于(经济)危机,工业化国家的国内社会经济问题变得更加严重,这正在削弱所谓历史上的西方的主导地位,”普京对大使们说。“随时准备应对任何形势的发展,即使是最不利的发展。”

Russia and Putin have been saying that the US dominance in the world of finance has been dying for years now. In October 2018, speaking at the Valdai forum, Putin said the US sanctioning specific countries (including Russia) would undermine trust in the US dollar.

俄罗斯和普京一直表示,多年来,美国在金融领域的主导地位一直在消亡。2018年10月,普京在 Valdai 论坛上发表讲话时表示,美国制裁特定国家(包括俄罗斯)将破坏人们对美元的信任。

The Russian President noted that most of the fallen empires have made the same mistake. “It’s a typical mistake of an empire,” the Russian leader declared at the time. “An empire always thinks that it can allow itself to make some little mistakes, take some extra costs, because its power is such that they don’t mean anything. But the quantity of those costs, those mistakes inevitably grows.” Putin continued:

俄罗斯总统指出,大多数倒台的帝国都犯了同样的错误。“这是一个帝国典型的错误,”这位俄罗斯领导人当时宣称。“一个帝国总是认为,它可以允许自己犯一些小错误,承担一些额外的成本,因为它的力量是这样的,它们没有任何意义。但这些成本和错误的数量不可避免地会增加。”普京接着说:

“And the moment comes when it can’t handle them, neither in the security sphere or the economic sphere.”

“到了美国无法应对这些挑战的时候了,无论是在安全领域还是经济领域。”

Moreover, in June, Bloomberg published a report about the BRICS Summit and noted that China’s President Xi Jinping suggested that the North Atlantic Treaty Organiaation (NATO) was responsible for antagonising the Russian Federation. Xi also said that certain countries that bolster exceptionalism will falter by suffering from security vulnerabilities.

此外,今年6月,彭博社发表了一份关于金砖国家峰会的报告,指出中国国家主席习近平暗示,北大西洋公约组织(NATO)应该对激怒俄罗斯负责。习还表示,某些支持例外主义的国家将因安全漏洞而步履蹒跚。

“Politicising, instrumentalising, and weaponising the world economy using a dominant position in the global financial system to wantonly impose sanctions would only hurt others as well as hurting oneself, leaving people around the world suffering,” Xi detailed. “Those who obsess with a position of strength, expand their military alliance, and seek their own security at the expense of others will only fall into a security conundrum.”

“利用全球金融体系中的主导地位,将世界经济政治化、工具化、武器化,肆意实施制裁,既伤害别人,也伤害自己,给世界各国人民带来痛苦。”。“那些执迷于实力地位、扩大军事同盟、以牺牲他人为代价谋求自身安全的人,只会陷入一个安全难题。”

The strengthening of the BRICS nations has been going on well before the conflict in Ukraine began. For instance, in 2014, Russia fully developed the System for Transfer of Financial Messages (SPFS), and later the Mir payment system was launched. That same year, in response to the annexation of Crimea, Russia started to stockpile gold in vast amounts.

早在乌克兰冲突爆发之前,金砖国家的实力就一直在增强。例如,2014年,俄罗斯全面开发了金融信息传递系统(SPFS) ,随后启动了和平信息支付系统。同年,作为对併吞克里米亚的回应,俄罗斯开始大量囤积黄金。

China has been hoarding massive amounts of gold as well, as both countries hiked their gold reserve purchases a great deal a few years before the war. Russian banks also joined the China International Payments System (CIPS) making it easier for the two countries to trade. In April last year, China opened its borders to billions of dollars of gold imports, according to a report from Reuters.

中国也一直在囤积大量黄金,因为两国都在战前几年大幅增加了黄金储备购买量。俄罗斯银行也加入了中国国际支付系统(CIPS) ,使两国贸易更加便利。据路透社(Reuters)报道,去年4月,中国向数十亿美元的黄金进口开放了边境。

Since World War I, the US dollar has been the world’s global reserve currency and America emerged as the largest international creditor. Fast forward to today, and the dollar is booming against a number of other currencies, and the US dollar is the most robust it has been in an entire generation. The US dollar currency index (DXY) gained over 10% this year and outpaced strong currencies like the Japanese yen.

自第一次世界大战以来,美元一直是世界储备货币,美国成为最大的国际债权国。快进到今天,美元相对于其它一些货币正在迅速升值,美元是整整一代人以来最为强劲的货币。美元货币指数(DXY)今年上涨超过10% ,超过了日元等强势货币。

Just recently, the euro met parity with the dollar, and other currencies like the Indian rupee, Polish zloty, Colombian peso, and the South African rand have faltered against the greenback in recent times. However, the Russian ruble has been a strong competitor to the dollar this year and has been one of the best-performing fiat currencies in 2022.

就在最近,欧元兑美元汇率达到了平价,而其它货币,如印度卢比、波兰兹罗提、哥伦比亚比索和南非兰特,最近兑美元汇率都有所下降。然而,俄罗斯卢布今年一直是美元的强劲竞争对手,并且是2022年表现最好的法定货币之一。

With inflation soaring and interest rates getting hiked by the Federal Reserve, Kamakshya Trivedi, the Co-Head of a market research group at Goldman Sachs stressed that it’s been a “pretty tough mix” to deal with. Despite the uncertainty, the analyst at Goldman Sachs thinks the dollar, at least for now, will remain robust. But in comparison to the greenback’s recent spike in value, most of that rise is in the past, Trivedi remarked.

高盛(Goldman Sachs)一家市场研究机构的联席主管卡马克希亚•特里维迪(Kamakshya Trivedi)强调,随着通胀飙升和美联储(Fed)加息,这是一个“相当棘手的组合”。尽管存在不确定性,但高盛(GoldmanSachs)分析师认为,至少就目前而言,美元仍将保持强劲。但特里维迪指出,与美元近期的飙升相比,美元升值的大部分时间都在过去。

“For now, we still expect the dollar to trade on the front foot,” Trivedi wrote on 16 July. “There might be a bit more to go, but probably the largest part of the dollar move may well be behind us.”

特里维迪在7月16日写道: “就目前而言,我们仍预计美元交易将处于领先地位。”。“可能还会有一些波动,但美元走势的最大部分很可能已经过去。”

(This article was first published by Bitcoin.com News on 25 July)

(本文于7月25日首次由 Bitcoin. com News 发表)

 来源:https://www.themorning.lk/russia-china-brics-plan-new-intl-reserve-currency/

新闻最后更新:2022-7-28
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  • 本文由 发表于 2022年7月27日17:42:39
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