它在这里:D-Wave 宣布2048量子位量子计算系统,理论上能够打破所有经典加密,包括军事级别

2019年10月12日10:15:11它在这里:D-Wave 宣布2048量子位量子计算系统,理论上能够打破所有经典加密,包括军事级别已关闭评论 93417006字阅读56分41秒

它在这里:D-Wave 宣布2048量子位量子计算系统,理论上能够打破所有经典加密,包括军事级别

Over the last several days,we've highlighted the stunning breakthrough in"quantum supremacy"announced by Google and NASA.Across other articles,we've revealed how quantum computing translates highly complex algorithmic computational problems into simple,linear(or geometric)problems in terms of computational complexity.In practical terms,quantum computers are code breakers,and they can break all known classical encryption,including the encryption used in cryptocurrency,military communications,financial transactions and even private encrypted communications.

在过去的几天里,我们强调了谷歌和美国宇航局在"量子优势"方面取得的惊人突破。在其他文章中,我们揭示了量子计算如何将高度复杂的算法计算问题转化为简单的、线性的(或几何的)计算复杂性问题。实际上,量子计算机是破解密码的工具,它们可以破解所有已知的经典加密,包括用于加密货币、军事通信、金融交易甚至私人加密通信的加密。

As the number of qubits(quantum bits)in quantum computers exceeds the number of bits used in classical encryption,it renders that encryption practically pointless.A 256-qubit quantum computer,in other words,can easily break 256-bit encryption.A 512-bit qubit computer can break 512-bit encryption,and so on.

由于量子计算机中量子位的数量超过了传统加密方法中使用的位数,因此加密实际上是毫无意义的。换句话说,一台256量子位的量子计算机可以轻易地破解256位的加密。一台512位的量子计算机可以破解512位的加密等等。

Those of us who are the leading publishers in independent media have long known that government-funded tech advancements are typically allowed to leak to the public only after several years of additional advances have already been achieved.Stated in practical terms,the rule of thumb is that by the time breakthrough technology gets reported,the government is already a decade beyond that.

我们这些在独立媒体领域处于领先地位的出版商早就知道,政府资助的技术进步通常只有在取得额外进展的几年之后才会被允许泄露给公众。实际上,根据经验法则,当突破性技术被报道出来时,政府已经超过这个时间十年了。

Thus,when Google's scientists declare"quantum supremacy"involving a 53-qubit quantum computer,you can confidently know that in their secret labs,they very likely already have quantum computers operating with a far greater number of qubits.

因此,当谷歌的科学家宣称一台53量子位的量子计算机是"量子优势"时,你可以自信地知道,在他们的秘密实验室里,他们很可能已经有了运行着更多量子位的量子计算机。

At the time we were assembling those stories,we were not yet aware that D-Wave,a quantum computing company that provides exotic hardware to Google and other research organizations,has announced a 2048-qubit quantum computer.

在我们汇编这些故事的时候,我们还不知道 D-Wave,一家为谷歌和其他研究机构提供奇异硬件的量子计算公司,已经发布了一款2048量子位的量子计算机。

The system is called the"D-Wave 2000Q"platform,and it features 2048 qubits,effectively allowing it to break military-grade encryption that uses 2048 or fewer encryption bits.

该系统被称为"D-Wave 2000Q"平台,拥有2048个量子位,可以有效地破解使用2048或更少加密位的军事级加密。

As explained in a D-Wave Systems brochure:

正如 D-Wave 系统小册子所解释的那样:

The D-Wave 2000Q system has up to 2048 qubits and 5600 couplers.To reach this scale,it uses 128,000 Josephson junctions,which makes the D-Wave 2000Q QPU by far the most complex superconducting integrated circuit ever built.

D-wave 2000Q 系统有多达2048个量子位和5600个耦合器。为了达到这个规模,它使用了128,000个约瑟夫森结,这使得 D-Wave 2000Q QPU 成为迄今为止建造的最复杂的超导集成电路。

Other facts from D-Wave about its superconducting quantum computing platform:

D-wave 有关其超导量子计算平台的其它事实:

    The system consumes 25 kW of power,meaning it can be run on less electricity than what is typically wired into a residential home(which is typically 200 amps x 220 v,or 44 kW).该系统消耗25千瓦的电力,这意味着它可以运行的电力比什么通常是连接到一个家庭(通常是200安培220伏特,或44千瓦)

    The system produces virtually no heat."The required water cooling is on par with what a kitchen tap can provide,"says the D-Wave brochure.这个系统几乎不产生热量。"所需的水冷却与厨房水龙头可以提供的水冷却是一样的,"D-Wave 的小册子说

    The system provides a platform for truly incredible improvements in computational efficiency involving machine learning,financial modeling,neural networking,modeling proteins in chemistry and—most importantly—"factoring integers."该系统提供了一个平台,可以真正令人难以置信地提高计算效率,包括机器学习、金融建模、神经网络、化学中的蛋白质建模,以及最重要的——"整数因式分解"

"Factoring integers"means breaking encryption

"因式分解整数"意味着破解加密

The"factoring integers"line,found in the D-Wave brochure,is what's causing unprecedented nervousness across cryptocurrency analysts right now,some of whom seem to be pushing the bizarre idea that quantum computers are an elaborate hoax in order to avoid having to admit that quantum computing renders cryptocurrency cryptography algorithms obsolete.(At least as currently structured,although perhaps there is a way around this in the future.)

D-wave 手册中的"整数因子分解"(factoring integers)一词,正是目前在密码货币分析师中引发前所未有的紧张情绪的原因。其中一些分析师似乎在推动一个奇怪的想法,即量子计算机是一个精心设计的骗局,以避免不得不承认量子计算让密码货币密码算法过时。(至少就目前的结构而言,尽管未来可能有解决这个问题的办法。)

"Factoring integers"is the key to breaking encryption.In fact,it is the extreme difficulty of factoring very large numbers that makes encryption incredibly difficult to break using classical computing.But as we have explained in this previous article,quantum computing translates exponentially complex mathematical problems into simple,linear(or you could call it"geometric")math,making the computation ridiculously simple.(In truth,quantum computers are"computing"anything.The universe is doing the computations.The quantum computer is merely an interface that talks to the underlying computational nature of physical reality,which is all based on a hyper-computational matrix that calculates cause-effect solutions for all subatomic particles and atomic elements,across the entire cosmos.Read more below…)

"因数分解整数"是破解加密的关键。事实上,正是因为分解非常大的数字的极端困难,使得加密难以令人难以置信地破解使用传统的计算。但正如我们在前一篇文章中所解释的,量子计算将指数级复杂的数学问题转化为简单的线性(或者你可以称之为"几何")数学,使得计算简单到了荒谬的地步。(事实上,量子计算机就是"计算"任何东西。宇宙在进行计算。量子计算机仅仅是一个界面,它与物理现实的基本计算性质对话,而物理现实的基本计算性质全部基于一个超计算矩阵,计算出整个宇宙中所有亚原子粒子和原子元素的因果解决方案。更多内容请见下文......)

Depending on the number of bits involved,a quantum computer can take a problem that might require literally one billion years to solve on a classical computer and render a short list of likely answers in less than one second.(Again,depending on many variables,this is just a summary of the scale,not a precise claim about the specifications of a particular system.)

根据所涉及的比特数量,量子计算机可以在经典计算机上处理一个可能需要十亿年才能解决的问题,并在不到一秒钟的时间内提供一个可能的答案的简短列表。(同样,取决于许多变量,这只是一个规模的概括,而不是一个关于特定系统规范的精确声明。)

Given that D-Wave's quantum computers cost only a few million dollars—while there are billions of dollars worth of crypto floating around that could be spoofed and redirected if you have a system that can easily crack cryptography—it seems to be a matter of economic certainty that,sooner or later,someone will acquire a quantum computing system and use it to steal cryptocurrency wallets by spoofing transactions.To be clear,I'm sure D-Wave likely vets its customers rather carefully,and the company would not knowingly provide its quantum computing tech to an organization that appeared to be motivated by malicious intent.Yet,realistically,we've all seen historical examples of advanced technology getting into the hands of twisted,evil people such as those who run the Federal Reserve,for example.

鉴于 D-Wave 的量子计算机成本只有几百万美元,而如果你有一个能轻易破解密码的系统,那么价值数十亿美元的密码可能会被欺骗和重定向,这似乎是一个经济上的确定性问题,迟早有人会获得一个量子计算系统,并利用它通过欺骗交易窃取加密货币钱包。需要澄清的是,我相信 D-Wave 可能会对其客户进行相当仔细的审查,而且公司不会故意向一个似乎是出于恶意动机的组织提供量子计算技术。然而,现实地说,我们都看到过先进技术落入扭曲邪恶的人手中的历史事例,比如那些掌管美联储的人。

D-Wave quantum computers don't really"compute"anything;they send mathematical questions into multiple dimensions,then retrieve the most likely answers

D-wave

量子计算机并不真正"计算"任何东西;它们将数学问题发送到多维空间,然后检索最有可能的答案

So how does quantum computing really work?As we've explained in several articles,these systems don't really carry out"computing"in the classic work sense of the term.There is no"computing"taking place in the D-Wave hardware.The best way to describe this is to imagine quantum computers as computational stargates.They submit mathematical questions into a hyper-dimensional reality(the quantum reality of superposition,etc.),and the universe itself carries out the computation because the very fabric of reality is mathematical at its core.As some brilliant scientists say,the universe IS mathematics,and thus the fabric of reality cannot help but automatically compute solutions in every slice of time,with seemingly infinite computational capability down to the subatomic level.

那么量子计算到底是如何工作的呢?正如我们在几篇文章中所解释的,这些系统实际上并没有按照这个术语的经典工作意义进行"计算"。在 D-Wave 硬件中没有发生"计算"。最好的描述方式是把量子计算机想象成计算性的星门。他们将数学问题提交给一个超维度的现实世界(叠加的量子现实世界,等等),而宇宙本身进行计算,因为现实世界的结构本身就是数学的核心。正如一些杰出的科学家所说,宇宙就是数学,因此现实的结构不能帮助而是在每一个时间片自动计算解决方案,似乎无限的计算能力下降到亚原子水平。

Put another way,the world of quantum phenomena is constantly trying out all possible combinations and permutations of atomic spin states and subatomic particles,and it naturally and automatically derives the best combination that achieves the lowest energy state(i.e.the least amount of chaos).

换句话说,量子现象的世界正在不断地尝试原子自旋态和亚原子粒子的所有可能的组合和排列,它自然而然地自动得出最佳组合,以达到最低能量状态(即最少的混沌量)

The end result is that a short list of the best possible solutions"magically"(although it isn't magic,it just seems like magic)appears in the spin states of the elements which represent binary registers.Thus,the answers to your computational problems are gifted back to you from the universe,almost as if the universe itself is a God-like computational guru that hands out free answers to any question that you can manage to present in binary.(Technically speaking,this also proves that the universe was created by an intelligent designer who expresses creation through mathematics.)

最终的结果是,代表二进制寄存器的元素的自旋状态中出现了一个"魔术般"的最佳可能解决方案的短列表(尽管它不是魔术,只是看起来像魔术)。因此,你的计算问题的答案是来自宇宙的馈赠,几乎就好像宇宙本身就是一个像上帝一样的计算大师,对于任何你可以设法用二进制表示的问题,它都会给出免费的答案。(从技术上讲,这也证明了宇宙是由一个通过数学表达创造的智能设计师创造的。)

它在这里:D-Wave 宣布2048量子位量子计算系统,理论上能够打破所有经典加密,包括军事级别

Programmers can easily break encryption codes using standard C++commands that interface with the quantum portal

程序员可以使用与量子门户接口的标准 c++命令轻松地破解加密代码

All of these quantum functions,by the way,are controlled by standard computer language code,including C++,Python and MATLAB.The system has its own API,and you can even submit commands to the quantum realm via its"Quantum Machine Instruction"(QMI)commands.As D-Wave explains in its brochure:

顺便说一下,所有这些量子函数都是由标准的计算机语言代码控制的,包括 c++Python MATLAB。这个系统有自己的 API,你甚至可以通过它的"量子指令"命令向量子领域提交命令。正如 D-Wave 在其宣传册中所解释的:

The D-Wave 2000Q system provides a standard Internet API(based on RESTful services),with client libraries available for C/C++,Python,and MATLAB.This interface allows users to access the system either as a cloud resource over a network,or integrated into their high-performance computing environments and data centers.Access is also available through D-Wave's hosted cloud service.Using D-Wave's development tools and client libraries,developers can create algorithms and applications within their existing environments using industry-standard tools.

D-wave 2000Q 系统提供了一个标准的 Internet API(基于 RESTful 服务),客户机库可用于 c/c++Python MATLAB。该接口允许用户通过网络作为云资源访问系统,或者集成到他们的高性能计算环境和数据中心中。还可以通过 D-Wave 的托管云服务访问。使用 D-Wave 的开发工具和客户机库,开发人员可以使用行业标准工具在现有环境中创建算法和应用程序。

While users can submit problems to the system in a number of different ways,ultimately a problem represents a set of values that correspond to the weights of the qubits and the strength of the couplers.The system takes these values along with other user-specified parameters and sends a single quantum machine instruction(QMI)to the QPU.Problem solutions correspond to the optimal configuration of qubits found;that is,the lowest points in the energy landscape.These values are returned to the user program over the network.

虽然用户可以通过许多不同的方式向系统提交问题,但最终问题代表一组与量子位的权重和耦合器的强度相对应的值。该系统采用这些值以及其他用户指定的参数,并向 QPU 发送一个量子指令(QMI)。问题的解决方案对应于所找到的量子位的最佳配置,也就是能量图中的最低点。这些值通过网络返回给用户程序。

它在这里:D-Wave 宣布2048量子位量子计算系统,理论上能够打破所有经典加密,包括军事级别

In other words,breaking cryptography is as simple as submitting the large integer to the quantum system as a series of bits which are then translated into electron spin states by the quantum hardware.From there,a"go"command is issued,and the universe solves the equation in a way that automatically derives the best combinations of multiple qubit spin states to achieve the lowest overall energy state(i.e.the simplest solution with the least chaos).A short list of the best possible factors of the large integer are returned in a time-sliced representation of the binary registers,which can be read over a regular network like any subroutine request.

换句话说,破解密码术就像把大整数作为一系列位元提交给量子系统一样简单,这些位元随后被量子硬体转换成电子自旋状态。从那里,发出一个"go"命令,宇宙以一种方式解决方程,自动推导出多个量子位自旋状态的最佳组合,以实现总体能量最低的状态(即最简单的解决方案,混沌最少)。以二进制寄存器的时间分片表示形式返回大整数的最佳可能因子的简短列表,这些寄存器可以像任何子例程请求一样在常规网络上读取。

From there,a classical computer can then try factoring the large integer with the short list of the best answers from the quantum system,using standard CPUs and code logic.Within a few tries from the short list,the correct factors are easily found.Once you have the factors,you now have the decryption keys to the original encrypted message,so decryption is effortless.In effect,you have used quantum computing to"cheat"the keys out of the system and hand them to you on a silver platter.(Or,in some cases,a holmium platter lined with platinum,or whatever exotic elements are being used in the quantum spin state hardware.)

然后,传统的计算机可以使用标准的 cpu 和代码逻辑,用量子系统的最佳答案的短列表尝试分解这个大的整数。在几次尝试从短名单,正确的因素很容易找到。有了这些因素之后,现在就有了原始加密消息的解密密钥,因此解密是毫不费力的。实际上,你已经使用了量子计算来"欺骗"系统中的密钥,并把它们放在银盘上交给你。(或者,在某些情况下,一个内衬铂金的钬磁盘,或者在量子自旋态硬件中使用的任何外来元素。)

Any competent programmer who has access to this technology,in other words,can break encryption almost without effort.The programming logic is not complex at all.The difficulty in such systems is in the hardware control systems,including spin state"reads"and"writes,"which are strongly affected by temperature and electromagnetic interference.The exotic hardware is the real breakthrough in all this,not the computational part.(Quantum computers are physics oracles,in a sense.The physics is the challenge,not the computer code.)

换句话说,任何有能力的程序员,只要能接触到这种技术,几乎不费吹灰之力就能破解加密。编程逻辑一点也不复杂。这类系统的难点在于硬件控制系统,包括自旋状态的"""",它们受到温度和电磁干扰的强烈影响。奇特的硬件是所有这一切的真正突破,而不是计算部分。(从某种意义上说,量子计算机是物理学的神谕。物理学是挑战,而不是计算机代码。)

Most people cannot grasp quantum computing,but that's not a reason to pretend it isn't real

大多数人无法理解量子计算,但这不是假装它不是真实存在的理由

One of the more curious things I've found recently is that some writers and publishers who don't understand quantum computing are trending in the direction of pretending it doesn't exist.According to some,Google's 53-qubit announcement was a hoax,which must also mean that,in their view,D-Wave Systems isn't real and doesn't sell quantum computers at all.

最近我发现了一件更奇怪的事情,那就是一些不懂量子计算的作家和出版商正在趋向于假装量子计算不存在。据一些人说,谷歌的53量子位的声明是一个骗局,这也意味着,在他们看来,D-Wave 系统是不真实的,根本不卖量子计算机。

That is not a rational position.There's no doubt that D-Wave is a real company with real hardware,and that Google already possesses 2048-qubit quantum computing capabilities.Furthermore,Google and the NSA have every reason to keep this fact secret for as long as possible,so that they can continue to scrape everyone's"encrypted"emails and financial transactions,all of which can be retroactively decrypted any time the NSA wants to look more closely at your activities.

这不是一个合理的立场。毫无疑问,D-Wave 是一家真正拥有硬件的公司,谷歌已经拥有2048量子位的量子计算能力。此外,谷歌和美国国家安全局有充分的理由尽可能长时间地保守这个秘密,这样他们就可以继续窃取每个人的"加密"电子邮件和金融交易,所有这些都可以在美国国家安全局想要更仔细地调查你的活动时被追溯解密。

To me,it has long been obvious that the cosmos itself is inherently computational.Just look at the collapse of probability waves found in the orbital shells of electrons.It should be self-evident that the universe is computing solutions at the subatomic level in every instant,effortlessly and without apparent cost.The very framework of the cosmos is driven by mathematics and rapid computational solutions.Once you realize how much subatomic phenomena is quantized,it becomes blatantly apparent that the universe is digitized and mathematical.The entire construct in which we exist,in other words,is a mathematical simulation,perhaps created by God for the purpose of amusing himself by watching our collective stupidity.

对我来说,宇宙本身固有的计算能力是显而易见的。看看在电子轨道壳层中发现的概率波的崩溃。它应该是不言而喻的,宇宙是计算解决方案在亚原子水平在每一个瞬间,毫不费力,没有明显的成本。宇宙的框架本身是由数学和快速计算解决方案驱动的。一旦你意识到有多少亚原子现象是量子化的,那么显而易见的是,宇宙是数字化和数学化的。换句话说,我们存在的整个构造是一个数学模拟,也许是上帝为了通过观察我们集体的愚蠢来娱乐自己而创造的。

D-Wave Systems,by the way,knows exactly what's up with all this.Their goal is to make quantum computing available to the masses.They also seem to hint at the hyperdimensional reality of how quantum computing works.From their brochure:(emphasis added)

顺便说一句,D-Wave 系统,知道这一切到底是怎么回事。他们的目标是使量子计算机向大众开放。它们似乎也暗示了量子计算工作方式的超维现实。来自他们的小册子:

While the D-Wave quantum computer is the most advanced in the world,the quantum computing revolution has only begun.Our vision is of a future where quantum computers will be accessible and of value to all,solving the world's most complex computing problems.This will require advances in many dimensions and contributions from experts in diverse domains.It is exciting to see increasing investment worldwide,advances in research and technology,and a growing ecosystem of developers,users,and applications needed to deliver on that vision.

虽然 D-Wave 量子计算机是世界上最先进的,但量子计算革命才刚刚开始。我们的愿景是在未来,量子计算机将是可以访问的,并且对所有人都有价值,解决世界上最复杂的计算问题。这将需要在许多方面取得进展,并需要不同领域的专家作出贡献。看到全球范围内投资的增加,研究和技术的进步,以及为实现这一愿景所需的开发人员、用户和应用程序的生态系统的不断增长,令人兴奋。

I can tell that the D-Wave people are some very smart folks.Maybe if these systems get at least an order of magnitude less expensive,we could buy one,install it in our mass spec lab,and start throwing computational questions at the universe.

我可以告诉你,D-Wave 的人是非常聪明的人。也许如果这些系统的价格至少降低一百万数量级,我们可以买一个,安装在我们的质谱实验室,然后开始向宇宙抛出计算问题。

Personally,if I had one of these systems,I would use it to solve protein folding questions for all the obvious reasons.Then I would probably have it start looking for blood and urine biomarkers for cancer.You could make a fortune applying quantum computing to solving horse race betting and handicapping equations,but that would seem silly compared to what the system is really capable of.Another application would be solving atomic decay patterns to derive the best way to synthesize antimatter,which can be used to power faster-than-light drive systems.(Which I cover at OblivionAgenda.com in a series of lectures.The FTL lectures have yet to be posted there,but are coming soon.)

就我个人而言,如果我有一个这样的系统,我会用它来解决蛋白质折叠问题,因为所有显而易见的原因。然后我可能会让它开始寻找癌症的血液和尿液生物标志物。你可以通过应用量子计算来解决赛马赌博和障碍方程来发大财,但是与这个系统真正的能力相比,这似乎显得很愚蠢。另一个应用是通过解决原子衰变模式来获得合成反物质的最佳方法,这种方法可以为超光速驱动系统提供动力。(我在 oblivionagenda.com 的一系列讲座中讨论了这个问题。超光速课程还没有在那里发布,但很快就会发布。)

Sadly,the deep state will probably use this technology to surveil humanity and enslave everyone with AI facial recognition and"precrime"predictive accusations that get translated into red flag laws.Once the tech giants profile you psychologically and behaviorally,a quantum computing system can easily compute your likelihood of becoming the next mass shooter.You could be found guilty by"quantum law"even if you've never pulled the trigger.

遗憾的是,深度国家可能会使用这种技术来监视人类,并用人工智能面部识别和"犯罪预防"预测性指控来奴役每一个人,这些指控被转化为红旗法。一旦科技巨头在心理和行为上对你进行侧写,量子计算系统就可以轻松计算出你成为下一个质量射手的可能性。即使你从未扣动过扳机,你也可能被"量子法则"判有罪。

As with all technologies,this one will be abused by governments to control and enslave humanity.It doesn't mean the technology is at fault but rather the lack of morality and ethics among fallen humans.

正如所有的技术一样,这个技术将被政府滥用来控制和奴役人类。这并不意味着技术是错误的,而是堕落的人类缺乏道德和伦理。

Read more about science and computing at Science.news.

更多关于科学和计算的信息请访问 Science.news

来源:

https://www.science.news/2019-09-24-d-wave-2000-qubit-quantum-computing-encryption.html

zhunbeizhuanbian
  • 本文由 发表于 2019年10月12日10:15:11
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