白宫起草行政命令,以解决硅谷所谓的反保守偏见

2019年8月9日10:18:42新闻白宫起草行政命令,以解决硅谷所谓的反保守偏见已关闭评论3685字数 10267阅读34分13秒阅读模式
摘要

据一名白宫官员和另外两名知情人士透露,白宫正在分发一项拟议行政命令的草案,该命令将针对社交媒体公司反保守偏见的指控。一个月前,唐纳德·特朗普总统承诺探讨有关该问题的”所有监管和立法解决方案”

白宫起草行政命令,以解决硅谷所谓的反保守偏见

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Social media companies,including Twitter,have denied the allegations of bias,though they say they have blocked or removed users who violate community standards  policies.

包括Twitter在内的社交媒体公司否认了有关偏见的指控,不过它们表示,已经屏蔽或删除了违反社区标准政策的用户。

The White House is circulating drafts of a proposed executive order that would address allegations of anti-conservative bias by social media companies,according to a White House official and two other people familiar with the matter—a month after President Donald Trump pledged to explore"all regulatory and legislative solutions"on the issue.

据一名白宫官员和另外两名知情人士透露,白宫正在分发一项拟议行政命令的草案,该命令将针对社交媒体公司反保守偏见的指控。一个月前,唐纳德·特朗普总统承诺探讨有关该问题的"所有监管和立法解决方案"

None of the three would describe the contents of the order,which one person cautioned has already taken many different forms and remains in flux.But its existence,and the deliberations surrounding it,are evidence that the administration is taking a serious look at wielding the federal government's power against Silicon Valley.

这三个词都没有描述这个秩序的内容,一个人告诫说,这个秩序已经采取了许多不同的形式,并且仍在不断变化。但它的存在,以及围绕它的讨论,证明了政府正在认真考虑运用联邦政府的权力来对抗硅谷。

Accusations of anti-conservative bias have become a frequent rallying cry for Trump and his supporters,seizing on incidents in which tech platforms like Facebook,Twitter and Google-owned YouTube have banned people like InfoWars founder and conspiracy theorist Alex Jones or faced accusations of squelching posts by pro-Trump social media personalities Diamond and Silk.

对于特朗普及其支持者来说,反保守偏见的指责已经成为一个频繁的战斗口号,他们抓住 FacebookTwitter 和谷歌(google)旗下的 YouTube 等科技平台封杀 InfoWars 创始人和阴谋论者亚历克斯·琼斯(Alex Jones)等人的事件,或者面临亲特朗普的社交媒体名人戴蒙德(Diamond)和西尔克。

The companies have denied the allegations of bias,though they say they have blocked or removed users who violate community standards policies.They have also faced complaints from liberal activists that they're too slow to remove hate speech,a category that some say includes Diamond and Silk.

这些公司否认了有关偏见的指控,尽管他们说,他们已经屏蔽或删除了违反社区标准政策的用户。他们还面临自由派活动人士的抱怨,称他们删除仇恨言论的速度太慢,一些人说,这类言论包括特朗普自己的推文。

The issue took center stage during a White House gathering in July in which Trump railed against censorship in front of a roomful of online conservative activists,and directed his administration to explore all"regulatory and legislative solutions to protect free speech and the free-speech rights of all Americans."Just this week,Trump warned that he is"watching Google very closely,"citing the case of an engineer who has claimed the company fired him for his conservative views.

今年7月,在白宫的一次聚会上,这个问题成为焦点。当时,特朗普在满屋子的网络保守派活动人士面前谴责了审查制度,并指示他的政府探索所有"监管和立法解决方案,以保护言论自由和所有美国人的言论自由权"就在本周,特朗普警告说,他正在"非常密切地关注谷歌",并引用了一名工程师的例子,该工程师声称谷歌因为他的保守观点而解雇了他。

But the White House effort may be complicated by skepticism in some agencies involved in the discussions about tech policy.The Republicans at the Federal Communications Commission and Federal Trade Commission have said publicly that they don't see a role for their agencies in policing companies'online content.The FCC and FTC have joined the Justice and Commerce departments in discussions about the potential bias crackdown.

但是,白宫的努力可能会因为一些参与讨论技术政策的机构的怀疑态度而变得复杂。联邦通信委员会和联邦贸易委员会的共和党人公开表示,他们认为他们的机构在监管公司的网络内容方面没有任何作用。美国联邦通信委员会和联邦贸易委员会已经与司法和商务部门一起讨论了潜在的打击偏见行动。

"There's very little in terms of direct regulation the federal government can do without congressional action,and frankly I think that's a positive thing,"said John Morris,who handled internet policy issues at the Commerce Department's National Telecommunications and Information Administration before leaving in May.

"就直接监管而言,如果国会不采取行动,联邦政府几乎无能为力,坦率地说,我认为这是一件积极的事情,"约翰·莫里斯(John Morris)说。他曾在美国商务部国家电信和信息管理局(National Telecommunications and Information Administration)处理互联网政策问题,

He added:"Although the government may be able to support and assist online platforms'efforts to reduce hate and violence online,the government should not try to impose speech regulations on private platforms.As politicians from both sides of the political spectrum have historically urged,the government should not be in the business of regulating speech."

他补充说:"尽管政府可能能够支持和协助网络平台努力减少网络上的仇恨和暴力,但政府不应该试图在私人平台上实施言论管制。"。正如政治光谱两岸的政治家们历来所主张的那样,政府不应该管制言论。"

One potential approach could involve using the government's leverage over federal contractors,a tactic the Obama administration used to advance LGBT rights.A 2014 executive order prohibited federal contractors from discriminating against workers on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.

一个可能的方法是利用政府对联邦承包商的影响力,这是奥巴马政府用来促进 LGBT 权利的策略。2014年的一项行政命令禁止联邦承包商基于性取向或性别身份歧视工人。

Trump earlier this year signed an executive order meant to promote free speech on college campuses by requiring schools to agree to promote free inquiry in order to receive federal research funding—something the schools were already supposed to do.

今年早些时候,特朗普签署了一项旨在促进大学校园言论自由的行政命令,要求学校同意促进自由质询,以便获得联邦研究资金——学校本来就应该这样做。

Concerns about harmful content online following last weekend's mass shooting in El Paso,Texas,could become part of the discussion around the draft order on tech bias.The suspected gunman has been linked to a racist manifesto that,shortly before the shooting,appeared on 8chan,a fringe website known as a hotbed of white supremacy.Online screeds tied to two other gunmen in mass shootings in California and New Zealand have also appeared on 8chan.

上周末德克萨斯州埃尔帕索发生大规模枪击事件后,人们对网上有害内容的担忧,可能会成为有关技术偏见的命令草案讨论的一部分。枪手嫌疑人与一份种族主义宣言有关,在枪击案发生前不久,该宣言出现在被称为白人至上主义温床的边缘网站8chan 上。与加利福尼亚和新西兰大规模枪击案中其他两名枪手有关的在线视频也出现在8chan 网站上。

"If the internet is going to be presented as this egalitarian platform and most of Twitter is liberal cesspools of venom,then at least the president wants some fairness in the system,"the White House official said."But look,we also think that social media plays a vital role.They have a vital role and an increasing responsibility to the culture that has helped make them so profitable and so prominent."

这位白宫官员表示:"如果互联网将被打造成一个平等主义的平台,而 Twitter 上的大部分内容都是自由主义的污水坑,那么至少总统希望这个体系能有一些公平。""但是你看,我们也认为社交媒体起着至关重要的作用。它们在企业文化中扮演着至关重要的角色,并承担着越来越大的责任,正是这种文化帮助它们实现了如此丰厚的利润和突出的地位。"

Two other people knowledgeable about the discussions also confirmed the existence of the draft order.

另外两名了解讨论情况的人也证实了命令草案的存在。

None of the three people could say what penalties,if any,the order would envision for companies deemed to be censoring political viewpoints.The order,which deals with other topics besides tech bias,is still in the early drafting stages and is not expected to be issued imminently.

这三个人中没有一个人能够说出这项命令会对那些被视为审查政治观点的公司施加什么样的惩罚。该命令涉及技术偏见以外的其他话题,目前仍处于起草阶段,预计不会很快发布。

"The President announced at this month's social media summit that we were going to address this and the administration is exploring all policy solutions,"a second White House official said Wednesday when asked about the draft order.

"总统在本月的社交媒体峰会上宣布,我们将解决这个问题,奥巴马政府正在探索所有的政策解决方案,"另一名白宫官员在周三被问及该草案时说。

Trump said Monday that he wants the government to work with social media"to develop tools that can detect mass shooters before they strike,"and the White House has invited internet and technology companies for a discussion on violent online extremism with senior administration officials Friday.

特朗普周一表示,他希望政府与社交媒体合作,"开发能够在大规模枪击事件发生前侦测到它们的工具",白宫已经邀请互联网和科技公司周五与政府高级官员就网络暴力极端主义进行讨论。

The first White House official said the administration sees no conflict between demanding that online companies allow free speech while expecting them to scrutinize people for signs of violence.

第一位白宫官员说,政府认为要求网络公司允许言论自由,同时要求他们仔细检查人们是否有暴力迹象,这两者之间没有冲突。

"They have a role,if not a responsibility,to monitor the content on their sites to ensure that people aren't threatened with violence or worse,and at the same time to provide a platform that protects and cherishes freedom and free speech,but at the same time does not allow it to descend into a platform for hate,"the first White House official said when asked about the draft executive order.

当被问及行政命令草案时,第一位白宫官员说,"他们有责任(如果不是责任的话)监控自己网站上的内容,以确保人们不会受到暴力威胁或更糟糕的威胁,同时提供一个平台,保护和珍惜自由和言论自由,但同时不允许它沦为仇恨的平台。"

But the federal government's options on combating online bias are limited by the First Amendment.Another obstacle is a provision of the 1996 Communications Decency Act,which both protects online platforms from liability for content their users post and empowers the companies to remove content without fear of liability.That provision,Section 230,has increasingly come under fire from lawmakers of both parties frustrated with tech companies'content moderation practices.

但是联邦政府在打击网络偏见方面的选择受到第一修正案的限制。另一个障碍是1996年《通信规范法案条款,该条款既保护网络平台免受用户发布内容的责任,又授权公司删除内容而不用担心责任。这一条款,即230条款,越来越多地受到两党立法者的抨击,他们对科技公司内容审查的做法感到失望。

The administration could look to NTIA,the branch of the Commerce Department that handles communications policy,but that agency lacks regulatory authority and could simply convene interested parties to explore the issues.

美国政府可以指望 NTIA,商务部负责通信政策的分支机构,但该机构缺乏监管权力,可以简单地召集有关各方探讨这些问题。

And while the Justice Department has announced a sweeping antitrust review of whether tech giants are harming competition or stifling innovation,antitrust cases have not traditionally been used as tools to address complaints about online speech.

尽管司法部已经宣布对科技巨头是否损害竞争或抑制创新进行全面的反垄断审查,但反垄断案件传统上并不被用作处理网络言论投诉的工具。

The prospects are also bleak at the independent agencies,the FCC and the FTC.

独立机构、联邦通信委员会和联邦贸易委员会的前景也很暗淡。

Section 230 doesn't give the FCC a regulatory hook to act on,and the Republican commissioners who lead the agency have already taken a hard line against one major government effort to regulate broadband providers'conduct—the commission's Obama-era net neutrality rules.And when Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg wrote an op-ed proposing the creation of"third-party bodies to set standards governing the distribution of harmful content,"Republican FCC Commissioner Brendan Carr derided it as a plea for the government to police speech.

230条款并没有赋予 FCC 一个可以采取行动的监管机制,而且领导该机构的共和党委员已经对政府监管宽带供应商行为的一项重大努力——该委员会奥巴马时代的网络中立规则——采取了强硬立场。当 Facebook 首席执行官马克·扎克伯格写了一篇专栏文章,提议建立"第三方机构来制定管理有害内容传播的标准"时,共和党联邦通信委员会委员布兰登·卡尔嘲笑这是在请求政府对演讲进行管制。

"Outsourcing censorship to the government is not just a bad idea,it would violate the First Amendment,"tweeted Carr,who is a Trump appointee."I'm a no."

"把审查工作外包给政府不仅是个坏主意,还违反了宪法第一修正案,"卡尔在推特上写道,他是特朗普任命的官员。"我不同意。"

Conservatives have also spent decades opposing any attempt to revive the FCC's old Fairness Doctrine,which required broadcasters to be balanced in their programming on controversial issues."FCC bureaucrats can neither determine what is'fair'nor enforce it,"the Heritage Foundation said in 1993.

几十年来,保守派一直反对任何试图恢复 FCC 旧有的公平原则的做法,该原则要求广播公司在有争议的问题上保持节目的平衡。美国传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)1993年表示:"FCC 官员既不能决定什么是'公平',也不能强制执行。"

Republicans at the FTC,which punishes companies for unfair or deceptive acts,also have said they don't see a role for the agency in policing allegations of social media bias.

联邦贸易委员会的共和党人也表示,他们不认为该机构有责任监督社交媒体偏见的指控。

During an FTC oversight hearing in the Senate last year,Sen.Ted Cruz(R-Texas)argued that a tech company could be considered"actively deceptive"if it appears to be a neutral public platform and then engages in censorship.But Republican Commissioner Noah Phillips said the FTC's antitrust and consumer protection authorities are"not authorities to police the First Amendment itself."

在去年参议院举行的联邦贸易委员会监督听证会上,德克萨斯州共和党参议员特德·克鲁兹(Ted Cruz)辩称,如果一家科技公司看上去是一个中立的公共平台,然后又进行审查,那么它就可以被认。但是共和党专员诺亚·菲利普斯说,联邦贸易委员会的反垄断和消费者保护机构"不是监督第一修正案本身的当局"

By MARGARET HARDING MCGILL and DANIEL LIPPMAN

作者:玛格丽特·哈丁·麦吉尔和丹尼尔·利普曼

来源:

https://c-vine.com/blog/2019/08/07/white-house-drafting-executive-order-to-tackle-silicon-valleys-alleged-anti-conservative-bias/

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  • 本文由 发表于 2019年8月9日10:18:42
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