The company,owned by Google's parent,introduced a free tool it calls Assembler to sort out real images from fake ones.
谷歌母公司旗下的这家公司推出了一款名为 Assembler 的免费工具，用于分辨真假图片。
Jigsaw's tool,called Assembler,is designed to verify images that may have been manipulated.
Jigsaw 的工具名为 Assembler，用于验证可能被操纵的图像Credit...信用..Dr.Luisa Verdoliva 路易莎·维多利瓦博士
By Davey Alba
A doctored,phony image of President Barack Obama shaking hands with President Hassan Rouhani of Iran.A real photograph of a Muslim girl at a desk doing her homework with Donald J.Trump looming in the background on television.
It is not always easy to tell the difference between real and fake photographs.But the pressure to get it right has never been more urgent as the amount of false political content online continues to rise.
On Tuesday,Jigsaw,a company that develops cutting-edge tech and is owned by Google's parent,unveiled a free tool that researchers said could help journalists spot doctored photographs—even ones created with the help of artificial intelligence.
本周二，谷歌母公司旗下开发尖端技术的公司 Jigsaw 推出了一款免费工具，研究人员表示，该工具可以帮助记者发现篡改过的照片，甚至是借助人工智能创作出来的照片。
Jigsaw,known as Google Ideas when it was founded,said it was testing the tool,called Assembler,with more than a dozen news and fact-checking organizations around the world.They include Animal Politico in Mexico,Rappler in the Philippines and Agence France-Presse.It does not plan to offer the tool to the public.
Jigsaw 成立时被称为"谷歌创意"(Google Ideas)，它表示正在全球十多家新闻和事实核查机构中测试这个名为"汇编器"(Assembler)的工具。他们包括墨西哥的《动物政治》，菲律宾的《猛禽》和法新社。它并不打算向公众提供这个工具。
"We observed an evolution in how disinformation was being used to manipulate elections,wage war and disrupt civil society,"Jared Cohen,Jigsaw's chief executive,wrote in a blog post about Assembler."But as the tactics of disinformation were evolving,so too were the technologies used to detect and ultimately stop disinformation."
Jigsaw 首席执行官贾里德·科恩(Jared Cohen)在一篇关于汇编人的博客文章中写道:"我们观察到，虚假信息正被用来操纵选举、发动战争和扰乱公民社会。"。"但随着虚假信息战术的发展，用于侦测并最终制止虚假信息的技术也在不断发展。"
The tool is meant to verify the authenticity of images—or show where they may have been altered.Reporters can feed images into Assembler,which has seven"detectors,"each one built to spot a specific type of photo-manipulation technique.
When an image has been manipulated—for instance,two images were merged together or something was deleted from the background—traces of the changes may be left behind.With a computer program that has been trained to learn from being shown example after example of what it should detect,Assembler can analyze an image and highlight where it thinks those traces are.
Five of the Assembler's image detectors were developed by research teams at universities,including the University of California,Berkeley;the University of Naples Federico II in Italy;and the University of Maryland.The models can detect things like color pattern anomalies,areas of an image that have been copied and pasted several times over,and whether more than one camera model was used to create an image.
"These detectors cannot completely solve the problem,but they represent an important tool to fight disinformation,"said Luisa Verdoliva,a professor at the Naples university and a visiting scholar at Google AI.
The other two detectors were developed by Jigsaw.One was designed to identify"deepfakes,"realistic images that have been heavily manipulated by artificial intelligence in ways meant to mislead an audience.
另外两个探测器是由 Jigsaw 开发的。其中一个被设计用来识别"深度赝品"，即由人工智能以误导观众的方式严重操纵的逼真图像。
Santiago Andrigo,left,and Andrew Gully,two of Jigsaw's researchers,said Assembler was not a cure-all for disinformation but would hopefully help slow its spread.圣地亚哥·安德里戈(左)和安德鲁·古利(Andrew Gully)是 Jigsaw 的两位研究人员，他们说组装工具并不是虚假信息的万能药，但有望帮助减缓其传播速度Credit...信用..Justin Kaneps for The New York Times 纽约时报 Justin Kaneps
Santiago Andrigo,a Jigsaw product manager,said Assembler might be"most helpful in a situation where a journalist from a large news organization receives a scandalous image and is under pressure to break the news."It could also be used to verify an image that has gone viral,he said.
Jigsaw also announced an interactive platform showing coordinated disinformation campaigns from around the world over the past decade.They include Ukrainian soldiers receiving targeted disinformation encouraging them to defect during the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea;associates of President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines hiring"click armies"to write pro-Duterte comments and stories online;and a small-town California hospital hiring a private firm,Psy-Group,to influence public opinion about a contested seat on the hospital board.
Jigsaw 还宣布建立一个互动平台，展示过去十年来世界各地协调一致的造谣活动。他们包括在2014年俄罗斯併吞克里米亚期间收到有针对性的虚假信息，鼓励他们叛逃的乌克兰士兵;菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)的助手，雇佣"点击军队"(click armies)在网上撰写支持杜特地的评论和故事;加利福尼亚州一家小镇医院，雇佣私人公司 Psy-Group 来影响公众对医院董事会中一个。
The database described the players involved in influence operations,common tactics used and how the falsehoods were spread on social media platforms.Jigsaw worked with the Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab to organize the set of around 60 disinformation cases,culled from over 700 investigations,articles and reports the lab published over the last five years.
Emerson Brooking,a resident fellow at the lab,said the goal was not to build an encyclopedic list of disinformation campaigns but to create a foundation for"a shared language"to describe the various efforts.That way,they could develop a taxonomy that could help other media outlets and groups studying disinformation,he said.
The two projects,Assembler and the disinformation interactive platform,were announced on Jigsaw's new research publication,The Current.
这两个项目----汇编器和虚假信息交互平台----在 Jigsaw 的新研究刊物《当前》上发布。
Davey Alba is a technology reporter covering disinformation.In 2019,she won a Livingston Award for excellence in international reporting and a Mirror Award for best story on journalism in peril.@daveyalba