新设备加速了非凡的量子网络的发展

2020年1月21日19:50:00新设备加速了非凡的量子网络的发展已关闭评论 1.2K7230字阅读24分6秒
摘要

ADELPHI,马里兰州——陆军科学家已经开发出一种全新的量子装置,它可以同时存储多种量子激发模式,为创建量子网络打开了大门。

新设备加速了非凡的量子网络的发展

ADELPHI,Md.--Army scientists have developed a radically new quantum device that can store many quantum excitation patterns at once,opening the door for the creation of a quantum network.

ADELPHI,马里兰州——陆军科学家已经开发出一种全新的量子装置,它可以同时存储多种量子激发模式,为创建量子网络打开了大门。

A quantum network is the Holy Grail for scientists because it likely can never be wiretapped and it would offer extraordinarily powerful computing and sensing capabilities.

量子网络是科学家的圣杯,因为它可能永远不会被窃听,而且它将提供非常强大的计算和感知能力。

Researchers from the Quantum Science Group at the U.S.Army Combat Capabilities Development Command's Army Research Laboratory constructed a test-bed quantum networking apparatus,consisting of millions of rubidium atoms trapped within laser beams and cooled to nearly absolute zero.

美国陆军作战能力发展司令部陆军研究实验室量子科学小组的研究人员构建了一个量子网络测试平台,由数以百万计的铷原子组成,它们被困在激光束中,冷却到接近绝对零度。

"Most leading quantum information platforms are working toward increased capacity bit-by-bit,"said Dr.Kevin Cox."This includes,for example,quantum computers based on trapped atomic ions that increase their computing power by trapping ions one-by-one.Our platform is distinct because we use a large ensemble of atoms,over a million,and instead store quantum excitations as patterns or images."

"大多数领先的量子信息平台正朝着逐位增加容量的方向努力,"凯文·考克斯博士说。"例如,这包括基于捕获原子离子的量子计算机,通过逐个捕获离子来提高计算能力。我们的平台之所以与众不同,是因为我们使用了一个超过100万个的庞大原子集合,而不是将量子激发以模式或图像的形式存储。"

There is a worldwide race between research groups to develop quantum devices that can perform ultra-secure networking and computation.The lab's new results are a big step toward achieving these goals,researchers said.

世界各地的研究小组都在争相开发能够实现超安全网络和计算的量子设备。研究人员说,实验室的新结果是朝着实现这些目标迈出的一大步。

To imagine this technology better,picture a canvas or sea in which quantum images or waves can be written,Cox said.Those images or wave patterns,called spin-waves,can then be stored as information.Spin-waves are like the paint for Cox's metaphorical canvas.

考克斯说,为了更好地想象这项技术,可以想象一幅画布或海洋,在其中可以书写量子图像或波。这些被称为自旋波的图像或波形可以被存储为信息。自旋波就像是考克斯画布上的油漆。

"Nobody in the world has yet been able to demonstrate a quantum repeater,a device that can teleport quantum information over a long distance network,"said Dr.Paul Kunz,a physicist in the quantum science group."Our new results show a significant step forward towards realizing such a device."

量子科学小组的物理学家保罗·孔兹博士(PaulKunz)说,"世界上还没有人能够展示量子中继器。量子中继器是一种能够通过长距离网络传输量子信息的设备。""我们的新结果显示,朝着实现这种装置迈出了重要的一步。"

A quantum repeater connects quantum devices.It's the first step toward a fully-fledged quantum internet,researchers said.

量子中继器连接量子设备。研究人员说,这是迈向完全成熟的量子互联网的第一步。

"The apparatus's circuits are light and laser beams instead of wire,"Kunz said.

"该仪器的电路是光和激光束,而不是电线,"昆兹说。

The quantum science group has shown their system already has the potential to store hundreds if not thousands of quantum bits,making it a promising candidate for scaling up quantum information systems.

量子科学小组已经展示了他们的系统已经有潜力存储数百甚至数千的量子位,这使得它成为扩大量子信息系统的一个有希望的候选者。

Laser beams reflect off of four mirrors,creating an optical cavity,like a one-directional racetrack for light.The racetrack passes directly through the glass chamber so that light interacts with the rubidium atoms on every pass.

激光束从四个反射镜反射出来,形成一个光学谐振腔,就像光的单向跑道。跑道直接穿过玻璃室,这样光每次都能与铷原子相互作用。

"The optical cavity dictates that all of the quantum information is directed along one path and can easily be routed into an optical fiber or other communication channel,"Cox said.

考克斯说:"光学谐振腔决定了所有的量子信息都沿着一条路径传输,并且可以很容易地被路由到光纤或其他通信信道中。"

Together with the multiplexing capacity,the one-directional light racetrack design forms a pivotal and unique quantum system.

与多路复用能力一起,单向光线轨道设计形成了一个关键和独特的量子系统。

Other research groups have investigated high-capacity quantum interfaces;however,the quantum information was not controlled in a single,targeted direction.Instead,it was emitted in random directions,making it hard to use,or integrate into a quantum network.

其他研究小组已经研究了高容量量子界面,然而,量子信息并没有被控制在一个单一的、有针对性的方向上。相反,它是在随机的方向上发射的,这使得它很难被使用,或者整合进量子网络。

Scientists said quantum entanglement is the crucial resource that will enable extraordinary quantum technologies in the future.Quantum entanglement is the phenomenon where measuring one quantum object has an instantaneous effect on another quantum object.

科学家们说,量子纠缠是在未来使非凡的量子技术成为可能的关键资源。量子纠缠是指测量一个量子物体对另一个量子物体产生瞬时效应的现象。

"It is a quantum connection between two objects,and has no equivalent in the normal world,"Cox said.

考克斯说:"这是两个物体之间的量子连接,在正常世界中没有等价物。"

The main focus for scientists from ARL's quantum science group research is how to create,control and use quantum entanglement.

美国研究实验室量子科学小组的科学家们主要关注的是如何创造、控制和使用量子纠缠。

"Capabilities that rely on quantum entanglement,such as quantum secure communication,entanglement-enhanced quantum sensors or quantum networks,cannot be mimicked by traditional technologies,"Cox said.

"依赖于量子纠缠的能力,如量子安全通信、纠缠增强型量子传感器或量子网络,无法被传统技术所模仿,"Cox说。

Unhackable quantum networks could be a game-changer in cryptography.

无法破解的量子网络可能成为密码学的游戏规则改变者。

The possible technological advancements through quantum entanglement seem enormous,Cox said.But it's important to keep in mind that this is a critical first step in launching quantum science into the next 10 to 20 years.

量子纠缠可能带来的技术进步似乎是巨大的,Cox说。但重要的是要记住,这是启动未来1020年量子科学的关键的第一步。

"Entanglement-based technologies offer huge potential combat advantages for our future Soldiers,"he said."Among those are remote access to ultra-powerful quantum computers,un-tappable secure networks and communication,and exquisite and assured sensors for timing and navigation as well as detection of adversaries."

"基于纠缠态的技术为我们未来的士兵提供了巨大的潜在战斗优势,"他说。"其中包括对超强大量子计算机的远程访问、不可伸缩的安全网络和通信,以及用于定时、导航和探测敌人的精密而可靠的传感器。"

The Army is working on new applications and technologies that take advantage of atomic quantum properties

美国陆军正在研究利用原子量子特性的新应用和新技术

"Vapors of atoms already form the most precise clocks,magnetic field sensors,electric field sensors,rotation,acceleration and gravitational sensors,"Kunz said."Yet,we know it is possible to improve these even further through leveraging entanglement."

"原子的蒸汽已经形成了最精确的时钟、磁场传感器、电场传感器、旋转、加速度和重力传感器,"Kunz说。"然而,我们知道,通过利用纠缠可以进一步改善这些问题。"

The Army first conducted research on a multiplexed quantum interface in 2018.Army researchers contributed to"Spin-Wave Multiplexed Atom-Cavity Electrodynamics,"published Dec.24 in Physical Review Letters.Contributing authors include:Kevin C.Cox,David H.Meyer,Zachary A.Castillo,Fredrik K.Fatemi,and Paul D.Kunz.

美国陆军在2018年首次对多路复用量子接口进行了研究。陆军研究人员为1224日发表在《物理评论快报》上的《自旋波多重复用原子-腔体电动力学》撰稿。特约作者包括:Kevinc.CoxDavidh.MeyerZacharya.CastilloFredrikk.Fatemi,和Pauld.Kunz

The scientists from the quantum science group have their eyes fixed on the future of quantum technologies.

量子科学小组的科学家们把目光投向了量子技术的未来。

"The work reported in this paper is really exciting because this experimental apparatus is the only one of its kind in the world,"Kunz said."It brings two critical ingredients together into a single system:strong light-matter coupling and high-capacity multiplexing.Bringing these ingredients to bear on quantum entanglement creation and distribution opens so many possibilities for advancing quantum technologies."

Kunz:"这篇论文中报道的工作非常令人兴奋,因为这种实验装置是世界上唯一的一种。""它将两个关键因素集中到一个单一系统中:强光物质耦合和大容量多路复用。将这些成分用于量子纠缠的创造和传播,为推进量子技术开辟了许多可能性。"

_________________________

CCDC Army Research Laboratory is an element of the U.S.Army Combat Capabilities Development Command.As the Army's corporate research laboratory,the lab discovers,innovates and transitions science and technology to ensure dominant strategic land power.Through collaboration across the command's core technical competencies,CCDC leads in the discovery,development and delivery of the technology-based capabilities required to make Soldiers more lethal to win our nation's wars and come home safely.CCDC is a major subordinate command of the U.S.Army Futures Command.

Ccdc陆军研究实验室是美国陆军作战能力发展司令部的一个组成部分。作为陆军的企业研究实验室,该实验室发现、创新和转变科学技术,以确保占主导地位的战略地面力量。通过与指挥部核心技术能力的协作,CCDC在发现、开发和交付基于技术的能力方面处于领先地位,这种能力是使士兵更具杀伤力,从而赢得国家战争,安全回家所必需的。Ccdc是美国陆军未来司令部的一个主要下属司令部。

来源:https://www.army.mil/article/231525/new_device_accelerates_development_of_extraordinary_quantum_networks

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