控制我们所看、所听、所读的几乎一切的六大集团

2019年8月3日13:09:47控制我们所看、所听、所读的几乎一切的六大集团已关闭评论 1.1K
摘要

今天,新闻媒体的所有权集中在6家非常强大的媒体公司手中。这些企业巨头控制着我们每天所看到、听到和读到的大部分内容。

Back in 1983,approximately 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news media in the United States.

早在1983年,美国几乎控制了所有新闻媒体的绝大多数。

Today,ownership of the news media has been concentrated in the hands of just six incredibly powerful media corporations.These corporate behemoths control most of what we watch,hear and read every single day.

今天,新闻媒体的所有权集中在6家非常强大的媒体公司手中。这些企业巨头控制着我们每天所看到、听到和读到的大部分内容。

They own television networks,cable channels,movie studios,newspapers,magazines,publishing houses,music labels and even many of our favorite websites.Sadly,most Americans don't even stop to think about who is feeding them the endless hours of news and entertainment that they constantly ingest.

他们拥有电视网络、有线电视频道、电影工作室、报纸、杂志、出版社、唱片公司,甚至许多我们喜欢的网站。可悲的是,大多数美国人甚至没有停下来想想是谁给他们提供了无休止的新闻和娱乐,他们不断地摄取。

Most Americans don't really seem to care about who owns the media.But they should.The truth is that each of us is deeply influenced by the messages that are constantly being pounded into our heads by the mainstream media.The average American watches 153 hours of television a month.

大多数美国人似乎并不在乎谁拥有媒体。但他们应该。事实上,我们每个人都深受主流媒体不断灌输到我们头脑中的信息的影响。美国人平均每月看153小时电视。控制我们所看、所听、所读的几乎一切的六大集团

In fact,most Americans begin to feel physically uncomfortable if they go too long without watching or listening to something.Sadly,most Americans have become absolutely addicted to news and entertainment and the ownership of all that news and entertainment that we crave is being concentrated in fewer and fewer hands each year.

事实上,大多数美国人开始觉得身体不舒服,如果他们太长时间没有看或听的东西。可悲的是,大多数美国人已经完全沉迷于新闻和娱乐,我们渴望的所有新闻和娱乐的所有权每年都集中在越来越少的人手中。

The six corporations that collectively control U.S.media today are Time Warner,Walt Disney,Viacom,Rupert Murdoch's News Corp.,CBS Corporation and NBC Universal.Together,the"big six"absolutely dominate news and entertainment in the United States.

时代华纳、迪士尼、维亚康姆、鲁伯特·默多克的新闻集团、哥伦比亚广播公司和NBC环球共同控制着今天的美国媒体。在美国,"六大"绝对统治着新闻和娱乐业。

But even those areas of the media that the"big six"do not completely control are becoming increasingly concentrated.For example,Clear Channel now owns over 1000 radio stations across the United States.Companies like Google,Yahoo and Microsoft are increasingly dominating the Internet.

但即使是那些"六大"没有完全控制的媒体领域,也正变得越来越集中。例如,清晰频道现在在美国拥有1000多个广播电台。像谷歌、雅虎和微软这样的公司正日益主导互联网。

But it is the"big six"that are the biggest concerns.When you control what Americans watch,hear and read you gain a great deal of control over what they think.They don't call it"programming"for nothing.

但最令人担忧的是"六大"。当你控制美国人看什么、听什么、读什么的时候,你就能很大程度上控制他们的想法。他们称之为"编程"是有原因的。

Back in 1983 it was bad enough that about 50 corporations dominated U.S.media.But since that time,power over the media has rapidly become concentrated in the hands of fewer and fewer people:

回到1983年,大约有50家公司主宰了美国媒体,这已经够糟糕的了。但自那以后,媒体的权力迅速集中在越来越少的人手中:

In 1983,fifty corporations dominated most of every mass medium and the biggest media merger in history was a$340 million deal.…[I]n 1987,the fifty companies had shrunk to twenty-nine.…[I]n 1990,the twenty-nine had shrunk to twenty three:

1983年,五十家公司控制了大众传媒的大部分领域,历史上最大的媒体合并是一笔3.4亿美元的交易。1987年,这五十家公司缩减到29家。在1990年,这29个人缩减到了23:

[I]n 1997,the biggest firms numbered ten and involved the$19 billion Disney-ABC deal,at the time the biggest media merger ever.…[In 2000]AOL Time Warner's$350 billion merged corporation[was]more than 1,000 times larger[than the biggest deal of 1983].–Ben H.Bagdikian,The Media Monopoly,Sixth Edition,(Beacon Press,2000),pp.xx—xxi

1997年,最大的公司数量达到了10家,参与了迪斯尼和美国广播公司190亿美元的交易,这是当时最大的媒体合并案。在2000年,美国在线时代华纳公司以3500亿美元合并了公司,比1983年最大的一笔交易还要大1000多倍。-Benh.Bagdikian,,第六版(Beacon出版社,2000),页。Xxxxi

Today,six colossal media giants tower over all the rest.Much of the information in the chart below comes from mediaowners.com.The chart below reveals only a small fraction of the media outlets that these six behemoths actually own….

今天,六个巨大的媒体巨头高高在上。下面图表中的大部分信息来自mediaowners.com。下面的图表揭示了这六大巨头实际拥有的媒体渠道的一小部分.....

Time Warner

时代华纳

Home Box Office(HBO)

家庭票房(HBO)

Time Inc.

时代科技有限公司。

Turner Broadcasting System,Inc.

透纳广播公司科技有限公司。

Warner Bros.Entertainment Inc.

华纳兄弟。娱乐股份有限公司。

CW Network(partial ownership)

Cw网络(部分所有权)

TMZ

Tmz

New Line Cinema

新线电影院

Time Warner Cable

时代华纳有线公司

Cinemax

Cinemax

Cartoon Network

卡通网络

TBS

结核菌素

TNT

三硝基甲苯

America Online

美国在线

MapQuest

Mapquest

Moviefone

Moviefone

Castle Rock

城堡石

Sports Illustrated

体育画报

Fortune

财富

Marie Claire

玛丽·克莱尔

People Magazine

人物杂志

Walt Disney

沃尔特·迪斯尼

ABC Television Network

Abc电视网

Disney Publishing

迪斯尼出版社

ESPN Inc.

深圳市艾森美科技有限公司。

Disney Channel

迪斯尼频道

SOAPnet

Soapnet

A&E

A&e

Lifetime

一生

Buena Vista Home Entertainment

布埃纳维斯塔家庭娱乐

Buena Vista Theatrical Productions

布埃纳维斯塔戏剧制作公司

Buena Vista Records

Buena Vista Records

Disney Records

迪斯尼唱片公司

Hollywood Records

好莱坞唱片公司

Miramax Films

Miramax Films

Touchstone Pictures

试金石影业

Walt Disney Pictures

华特迪士尼影片

Pixar Animation Studios

皮克斯动画工作室

Buena Vista Games

迪斯尼互动工作室

Hyperion Books

Hyperion Books

Viacom

Viacom

Paramount Pictures

派拉蒙电影公司

Paramount Home Entertainment

派拉蒙家庭娱乐

Black Entertainment Television(BET)

黑人娱乐电视(BET)

Comedy Central

Comedy Central

Country Music Television(CMT)

乡村音乐电视(CMT)

Logo

标志

MTV

音乐电视

MTV Canada

加拿大MTV电视台

MTV2

2

Nick Magazine

尼克杂志

Nick at Nite

尼克在奈特

Nick Jr.

小尼克。

Nickelodeon

Nickelodeon

Noggin

诺金

Spike TV

Spike TV

The Movie Channel

电影频道

TV Land

电视广场

VH1

1

News Corporation

新闻集团

Dow Jones&Company,Inc.

道琼斯公司科技有限公司。

Fox Television Stations

福克斯电视台

The New York Post

纽约邮报

Fox Searchlight Pictures

福克斯探照灯影业

Beliefnet

Beliefnet

Fox Business Network

福克斯商业网络

Fox Kids Europe

福克斯儿童欧洲

Fox News Channel

福克斯新闻频道

Fox Sports Net

福克斯体育网

Fox Television Network

福克斯电视网

FX

外汇

My Network TV

我的网络电视

MySpace

我的空间

News Limited News

新闻有限公司新闻

Phoenix InfoNews Channel

凤凰卫视资讯台

Phoenix Movies Channel

凤凰卫视电影台

Sky PerfecTV

天空完美电视

Speed Channel

速度通道

STAR TV India

印度星空卫视

STAR TV Taiwan

台湾星空卫视

STAR World

Star World

Times Higher Education Supplement Magazine

时代高等教育增刊

Times Literary Supplement Magazine

时代文学副刊杂志

Times of London

伦敦时报

20th Century Fox Home Entertainment

20世纪福克斯家庭娱乐

20th Century Fox International

20th Century Fox International

20th Century Fox Studios

20th Century Fox Studios

20th Century Fox Television

20世纪福克斯电视台

BSkyB

Bskyb

DIRECTV

Directv

The Wall Street Journal

华尔街日报

Fox Broadcasting Company

福克斯广播公司

Fox Interactive Media

福克斯互动媒体

FOXTEL

Foxtel

HarperCollins Publishers

哈珀柯林斯出版社

The National Geographic Channel

国家地理频道

National Rugby League

全国橄榄球联赛

News Interactive

新闻互动

News Outdoor

户外新闻

Radio Veronica

维罗妮卡电台

ReganBooks

Reganbooks

Sky Italia

意大利天空电视台

Sky Radio Denmark

丹麦天空电台

Sky Radio Germany

德国天空电台

Sky Radio Netherlands

荷兰天空广播电台

STAR


Zondervan

Zondervan

CBS Corporation

哥伦比亚广播公司

CBS News

哥伦比亚广播公司新闻

CBS Sports

Cbs体育频道

CBS Television Network

哥伦比亚广播公司电视网

CNET

Cnet

Showtime

表演时间

TV.com

电视网

CBS Radio Inc.(130 stations)

美国哥伦比亚广播公司(CBSRadioinc.)(130个电台)

CBS Consumer Products

哥伦比亚广播公司消费品

CBS Outdoor

Cbs Outdoor

CW Network(50%ownership)

Cw网络(50%所有权)

Infinity Broadcasting

CBS电台

Simon&Schuster(Pocket Books,Scribner)

口袋书,斯克里布纳出版西蒙与舒斯特

Westwood One Radio Network

韦斯特伍德第一广播网

NBC Universal

环球电视台

Bravo

好极了

CNBC

全国广播公司财经频道

NBC News

全国广播公司新闻

MSNBC

微软全国广播公司

NBC Sports

Nbc体育

NBC Television Network

美国全国广播公司电视网

Oxygen

氧气

SciFi Magazine

科幻杂志

Syfy(Sci Fi Channel)

科幻频道

Telemundo

Telemundo

USA Network

Usa Network

Weather Channel

天气频道

Focus Features

焦点功能

NBC Universal Television Distribution

全国广播公司环球电视发行

NBC Universal Television Studio

全国广播公司环球电视演播室

Paxson Communications(partial ownership)

PaxsonCommunications(部分所有权)

Trio

三重奏

Universal Parks&Resorts

环球主题乐园及度假村

Universal Pictures

环球影业

Universal Studio Home Video

环球工作室家庭视频

These gigantic media corporations do not exist to objectively tell the truth to the American people.Rather,the primary purpose of their existence is to make money.

这些大型媒体公司的存在并不是为了向美国人民客观地讲述真相。相反,他们存在的主要目的是赚钱。

These gigantic media corporations are not going to do anything to threaten their relationships with their biggest advertisers(such as the largest pharmaceutical companies that literally spend billions on advertising),and one way or another these gigantic media corporations are always going to express the ideological viewpoints of their owners.

这些大型媒体公司不会做任何事情来威胁它们与最大的广告客户的关系(比如那些在广告上花费数十亿美元的最大的制药公司),而且这些大型媒体公司总是会以某种方式表达它们所有者的意识形态观点。

Fortunately,an increasing number of Americans are starting to wake up and are realizing that the mainstream media should not be trusted.According to a poll released by Gallup back in 2010,the number of Americans that have little to no trust in the mainstream media(57%)is at an all-time high.

幸运的是,越来越多的美国人开始觉醒,意识到主流媒体不应该被信任。根据2010年的一项调查,对主流媒体不信任的美国人数量(57%)创历史新高。

That is one reason why we have seen the alternative media experience such rapid growth over the past few years.The mainstream media has been losing credibility at a staggering rate,and Americans are starting to look elsewhere for the truth about what is really going on.

这就是为什么我们看到替代媒体在过去几年中经历了如此快速的增长。主流媒体正在以惊人的速度失去可信度,美国人也开始在其他地方寻找真相。

Do you think that anyone in the mainstream news would actually tell you that the Federal Reserve is bad for America or that we are facing a horrific derivatives bubble that could destroy the entire world financial system?Do you think that anyone in the mainstream media would actually tell you the truth about the deindustrialization of America or the truth about the voracious greed of Goldman Sachs?

你认为主流新闻中的任何人会真的告诉你这些,或者我们正面临着一场可能摧毁整个世界金融体系的恐怖事件吗?你认为主流媒体中的任何人会告诉你真相吗?

Sure there are a few courageous reporters in the mainstream media that manage to slip a few stories past their corporate bosses from time to time,but in general there is a very clear understanding that there are simply certain things that you just do not say in the mainstream news.

当然,在主流媒体中也有一些勇敢的记者时不时地从他们的公司老板那里得到一些故事,但是总的来说,有一个非常清楚的认识,那就是有些事情你只是不能在报纸上说出来。

But Americans are becoming increasingly hungry for the truth,and they are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the dumbed down pablum that is passing as"hard hitting news"these days.

但是美国人越来越渴望知道真相,他们越来越不满意这些日子以来作为"重要新闻"传递出去的无用信息。

By Michael Snyder,the author of The Beginning Of The End and Get Prepared Now!Why A Great Crisis Is Coming&How You Can Survive It

作者:迈克尔·斯奈德

来源:http://humansarefree.com/2019/08/the-6-monolithic-corporations-that.html

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