美军眼中的地月空间战略价值

2019年11月16日14:53:41美军眼中的地月空间战略价值已关闭评论 498 7188字阅读23分57秒

A potential framework for the use of lunar water ice and asteroid resources. 利用月球水冰和小行星资源的潜在框架。 (Image:©Aiden O'Leary/Jason Aspiotis/Booz Allen Hamilton) (图片:AidenO'Leary/Jasonaspiotis/boozAllenHamilton)

This week,the new United States Space Command officially makes its debut,emphasizing that space is a vital military domain—one that's critical to America's security and economic well-being.

本周,新成立的美国太空司令部(UnitedStatesSpaceCommand)强调,太空是一个至关重要的军事领域,对美国的安全和经济福祉至关重要。

Standing up the command coincides with ongoing White House support to establish a Space Force as a separate military branch.

白宫正在支持建立一个独立的军事分支机构。

To this end,there is increasing military interest in cislunar space.That's the region extending beyond Earth to the moon.Indeed,the protection of trade routes and lines of communication are traditional military responsibilities,and this will continue to be true as cislunar space becomes"high ground"—a position of advantage or superiority.

为此,人们对地月空间的军事兴趣日益浓厚。这个区域从地球延伸到。事实上,保护贸易路线和通信线路是传统的军事责任,随着地月空间成为"高地"——优势或优势地位,这种责任将继续存在。

Phased approaches

分阶段的方法

At last June's Space Resources Roundtable,held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden,the military utility of phased approaches to tap lunar water ice and asteroid resources for propulsion and other applications was detailed.

去年六月在科罗拉多矿业学院举行的太空资源圆桌会议上,详细介绍了分阶段开发利用小行星推进和其他应用资源的军事用途。

Jason Aspiotis and Aiden O'Leary of Booz Allen Hamilton in Charlotte,North Carolina,presented a stimulating paper:"In-space Water Supply Chain Servicing the U.S.Military:A Preliminary Estimate of Future Potential U.S.Military Supply and Demand for In-space Water-Based Fuel."

北卡罗来纳州夏洛特市博思艾伦谘询公司的JasonAspiotisAidenO'Leary发表了一篇激动人心的论文:"为美国军方服务的太空水供应链:对未来美国军方对太空水基燃料的潜在供需的初步估计"

"It's a preliminary first-look study to gauge the potential utility of in-space resources,specifically water in the context of U.S.military and intelligence assets,"Aspiotis told Space.com."It adds a lot of capability in terms of more maneuverable assets.I think the high brass is definitely paying attention and starting to consider what it really means for their own strategic plans for the future,"he said.

阿斯皮奥蒂斯告诉《太空网》说:"这是一项初步的初步研究,目的是评估太空资源的潜在效用,特别是在美国军事和情报资产方面的水资源。""就更容易操作的资产而言,它增加了很多能力。我认为高级官员肯定在关注,并开始考虑这对他们自己的未来战略计划意味着什么。"

It's very important for the military to have diverse supply chains,added O'Leary,so that backups can carry the load in the event that any supply chain is cut off."I believe it has tremendous value for them,"he said.

对于军队来说,拥有多样化的供应链是非常重要的,O'Leary补充道,这样在任何供应链被切断的情况下,备用系统都可以承担负担。"我相信这对他们来说具有巨大的价值,"他说。

Earth's moon and cislunar space loom large in our future.What military and intelligence-gathering purposes will they serve? 地球的月球和地月空间在我们的未来显得尤为重要。它们有什么军事情报收集目的? (Image credit:NASA) (图片来源:NASA)

New focus

新焦点

The U.S.military's cislunar interest is interesting,said Joan Johnson-Freese,a professor in the National Security Affairs Department at the Naval War College in Newport,Rhode Island.

位于罗德岛纽波特的海军战争学院国家安全事务部教授琼·约翰逊-弗里斯说,美国军方对月球的兴趣很有趣。

It is the opinion of Johnson-Freese that cislunar seems to be a"new focus"for the Department of Defense."It appears partly driven by the new,open U.S.push toward the weaponization of space…required because virtually everything China does in space—and bureaucratic politics,"she told Space.com.

约翰逊-弗里斯认为,地月似乎是国防部的一个"新焦点""这似乎部分是由美国新的、公开的推动太空武器化......所需要的,因为事实上中国在太空ー和官僚政治方面所做的一切,"她告诉《太空网》。

All bureaucracies need a purpose,Johnson-Freese said."Apparently part of the'need'is protecting U.S.economic/commercial space interests.It would be interesting to know if this protection was requested by commercial countries or merely anticipated,"she said.

所有的官僚机构都需要一个目标,约翰逊-弗里斯说。"显然,'需要'的一部分是保护美国的经济/商业太空利益。她想知道,这种保护是商业国家要求的,还是仅仅是预期的。"

China's Chang'e-4 farside mission uses its Magpie Bridge relay satellite at the Earth-Moon L2 halo orbit.中国的嫦娥四号远地任务使用其MagpieBridge中继卫星在地球-月球l2晕轨道运行。(Image credit:CNSA's Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center(CNSA-LESEC)) (图片来源:CNSA的月球探测和太空工程中心(CNSA-lesec))

Strategically vital

战略上至关重要

Cislunar space is strategically vital because the exploitation of space resources can—and will—alter the balance of power on Earth.

地月空间在战略上是至关重要的,因为空间资源的开发可以而且将会改变地球上的力量平衡。

That's the view of Peter Garretson,an independent strategy consultant who focuses on space and defense.A retired Air Force officer,he was previously the director of Air University's Space Horizons Research Task Force,America's think tank for space.

这是彼得·加勒森的观点,他是一位专注于太空和防御的独立战略顾问。作为一名退休的空军军官,他曾经是美国航空大学空间地平线研究特别工作组的主任,该工作组是美国空间智囊团。

"What is driving the U.S.military to look at cislunar is not some present tactical advantage,"Garretson said."It is fear that China's moves to cislunar space will provide it with a positional and logistic advantage from which it could occupy,constrict,threaten or coerce U.S.interests."

"促使美国军方关注'地月空间'的不是目前的某些战术优势,"加勒森说。"人们担心,中国向地月空间的转移将为其提供位置和后勤优势,使其能够占据、压缩、威胁或胁迫美国的利益。"

Domain awareness

领域意识

The military will need to articulate requirements,Garretson said,that include cislunar"domain awareness,"in-space refueling and the ability to make use of moon-derived propellant.

加勒特森说,军方需要明确提出要求,包括月球"领域意识"、空间燃料补给和利用月球衍生推进剂的能力。

"Cislunar space offers a vast maneuver space that is difficult to surveil and from which surprises can then emerge,analogous to deep-sea submarine warfare.The People's Republic of China's military-run space program is positioning itself in cislunar space.We are behind,and we must catch up,"Garretson said."Cislunar space is already the high ground,and the U.S.is already far behind China in its position and its planning."

"地月空间提供了一个巨大的机动空间,难以监视,从中可能会出现意外,类似于深海潜艇战。中国的军事太空计划正在把自己定位在地月空间。我们落后了,必须迎头赶上。""地月空间已经是制高点,美国在地位和规划方面已经远远落后于中国。"

Is competition for key locations at the moon's poles and potential water ice inevitable?This image shows a two-person crew exploring a permanently shadowed crater at the lunar south pole.As an extractable resource,water ice can be processed into oxygen,water and rocket fu争夺月球两极的关键位置和潜在的水冰是不可避免的吗?这张照片显示了一个两人小组正在探索月球南极空间站上一个永久被阴影遮挡的陨石坑。作为一种可提取的资源,水冰可以被加工成氧气、水和火箭燃料。 (Image credit:NASA) (图片来源:NASA)

Lunar industrialization

月球工业化

Garretson said that China's Chang'e-4 farside moon mission and the nation's Magpie Bridge relay satellite at the Earth-moon L2 halo orbit are part of a well-conceived and cumulative plan.

加勒特森说,中国和Magpie Bridge在地球-月亮l2光晕轨道上的中继卫星是一个周密计划和累积计划的一部分。

"They have already put in place the first node in a broader communications architecture,and perhaps a cislunar space domain awareness system as well,"Garretson said."Next comes sample return,polar landings and 3D printing of a'Lunar Palace'with an industrial mission to make economic use of lunar resources."

"他们已经在一个更广泛的通信架构中安装了第一个节点,或许还有一个地月空间域认知系统,"加勒特森说。"接下来是样品回收、极地着陆和3D打印的'月球宫殿',其工业使命是经济利用月球资源。"

China is absolutely clear on its strategic intent in cislunar space,Garretson said.

中国在地月空间的战略意图是绝对明确的,Garretson说。

"They intend to build an infrastructure to industrialize the moon,and use its resources and ideal location to build large numbers of solar-power satellites for their own energy supply and to service a$21 trillion energy market,"Garretson said.

"他们打算建立一个基础设施来实现月球的工业化,利用月球的资源和理想位置来建造大量的太阳能卫星,以满足自身的能源供应,并为21万亿美元的能源市场提供服务,"加勒特森说。

An industrial-logistical system of that magnitude,Garretson said,would obviously establish China as the dominant power."Without an equivalent plan to industrialize the moon,the game is lost for the United States of America.We will find ourselves having lost without fighting…confronting a juggernaut with an industrial,logistical and maneuver advantage we cannot possibly match,"Garretson concluded.

加里森说,如此规模的工业物流系统,显然将使中国成为主导力量。"如果没有相应的月球工业化计划,美利坚合众国就输了。我们将发现自己在没有战斗的情况下输了......面对一个拥有我们无法比拟的工业、物流和机动优势的巨大力量,"加勒特森总结道。

来源:https://www.space.com/us-military-strategic-value-earth-moon-space.html

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