You may have heard last year about Bayer Merging with the GMOs giant,Monsanto.But did you know that Bayer has been involved in some of the darkest cover-ups in recent history?
Bayer is a major pharmaceutical and chemicals company that was founded in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer and Johann Wescott in Barmen,Germany.The company is one of the largest makers of aspirin products,and enjoys a strong presence in diabetes medications,birth control and other consumer goods.Although Bayer may be most well-known for their aspirin commercials featuring stroke victims celebrating the benefits of a"aspirin regimen",Bayer has a long and dark history in the medical industry.
拜耳是一家主要的制药和化学品公司，由 Barmen 的弗里德里希·拜耳和约翰·威斯科特于1863年创立。该公司是最大的阿司匹林产品制造商之一，在糖尿病药物、避孕药和其他消费品领域占有重要地位。虽然拜耳最出名的可能是他们的阿司匹林广告，广告中中风患者庆祝"阿司匹林养生法"的好处，但拜耳在医疗行业有着漫长而黑暗的历史。
Bayer's Role in the Holocaust
To many people the Holocaust and Third Reich have become synonymous with World War II.Among the many crimes against humanity,perhaps the most renown horrors were the mass executions that took place in the extermination camps sprinkled throughout Europe.Auscwhitz is undoubtedly the most famous of them all,known for their quickness to execute prisoners and resident doctor,Josef Mengele.Wanting to better understand the human body and particularly the nuances of heredity,Mengele became infamous for his experiments that included injecting dye in to children's eyeballs and repeated x-rays on the reproductive organs,to see if he could make prisoners infertile.By better understanding the reproductive process,Mengele wanted to propel the growth of the Aryan race while sterilizing the"undesirables"-the handicapped,gypsies and those of the Jewish race.
对许多人来说，大屠杀和第三帝国已经成为二战的代名词。在众多反人类罪行中，也许最令人闻名的恐怖事件是遍布欧洲的灭绝集中营发生的大规模处决。毫无疑问，奥斯维茨是其中最著名的一位，他以处决囚犯和住院医生约瑟夫·门格勒的敏捷而闻名。为了更好地了解人体，尤其是遗传的细微差别，门格勒因为他的实验而臭名昭著，这些实验包括向儿童的眼球注射染料，以及对生殖器官反复进行 x 光检查，以观察他是否能使囚犯不育。通过更好地了解生育过程，门格勒希望推动雅利安种族的发展，同时消灭"不受欢迎的人"——残疾人、吉普赛人和犹太人。
dr.josef mengele bayer
Mengele also became well-known for performing a variety of other inhumane experiments.Some of them included injecting one twin with sickness like typhus or gangrene,and then immediately slaughtering the other when the first twin died to compare the two corpses to see the anatomical differences.To test the effectiveness of new drugs,Mengele also injected various chemicals in to his victims,often paralyzing or killing them.In other experiments Mengele would dissect pregnant mothers and children,without anesthesia.Many of these experiments were in a large part sponsored by IG Farben who paid Auschwitz doctors to test their drugs on the prison victims and to discover the"secrets to heredity".IG Farben also manufactured the cans of Zyklon B gas that were used in Auschwitz's gas chambers.
门格勒还因进行其他各种不人道的实验而闻名。其中一些包括给双胞胎中的一个注射斑疹伤寒或坏疽病毒，然后在第一个双胞胎死亡时立即屠宰另一个，以比较两具尸体的解剖学差异。为了测试新药的有效性，门格勒还给他的受害者注射了各种各样的化学物质，常常使他们瘫痪或死亡。在其他实验中，门格勒会在没有麻醉的情况下解剖怀孕的母亲和孩子。其中许多实验在很大程度上是由 IG Farben 赞助的，他付钱给奥斯维辛集中营的医生，让他们在监狱受害者身上试验他们的药物，并发现"遗传的秘密"。法本集团还生产用于奥斯威辛毒气室的齐克隆 b 毒气罐。
As of 1952 the company was liquidated due to its egregious war crimes and participation in Nazi Germany.Bayer was one of the four original chemical companies that survived the company's liquidation.In 1995 the head of Bayer,Helge Wehmeier,formally apologized to Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel for the company's participation in Nazi Germany.The company has yet to issue a formal apology outside of that lecture.
Cutting Costs by Using Blood Tainted with HIV
After 1978 Bayer and other pharmaceutical companies produced Factor VIII and IX.The product was designed for hemophiliacs,people who suffer from a genetic disorder whose blood can not clot to stave bleeding.As a result,even a minor cut could cause them to bleed out and lose dangerous levels of blood.Factor VII is harvested from the blood plasma of non-hemophiliacs,but to purportedly cut costs Bayer harvested blood from pools of"high risk"individuals.(or maybe they did it on purpose…)
1978年以后拜耳和其他制药公司生产凝血因子 VIII 和 IX。该产品是为血友病患者设计的，这些人患有遗传性疾病，他们的血液无法凝结，无法止血。因此，即使是一个轻微的伤口也可能导致他们失血过多，失血量达到危险的程度。凝血因子 VII 是从非血友病患者的血浆中提取的，但据称是为了降低拜耳公司从"高危"人群中提取血液的成本。(或者他们是故意的...)
This included:prison populations,intravenous drug users and blood from clinics with a large amount of homosexual donors.Federal law also forbids the use of blood from an individual with a history of viral hepatitis-but Bayer and other companies failed to enact strict prerequisites for blood farming.As a result,thousands of hemophiliacs died from the HIV-tainted blood plasma.
Cheating Medicaid…and taxpayers
Medicaid is a means-tested federally sponsored program to help offer pharmaceutical and medical assistance to low-income families and individuals.The program is funded by a 3%deduction from a working individuals'paychecks,and participating doctors can bill the federal government when Medicaid qualified individuals visit their clinics.In the 1990's the federal government launched an investigation in to Bayer's billing practices.The Justice Department found Bayer guilty of overstating average wholesale pharmaceutical prices to receive larger reimbursements for more than 7 years.Bayer was forced to reimburse the federal government and state localities more than$14 million dollars.Fraud related to Medicare and Medicaid costs taxpayers more than $100 billion each year.
Downplaying Side Effects of their Birth Control Products
Yaz,approved by the FDA in 2006 and its sister Yasmin(2001)were revolutionary new birth control pills that dominated the oral contraceptive market.Unlike other pills that used combinations of estrogen and progestin Yaz and Yasmin both used a synthetic hormone called drospirenone,or DSP.One of the biggest benefits women saw from Yasmin use was the mild laxative effect.Here was a pill that promised to be different,to not burden its users with excess water weight and bloating often associated with other methods of hormonal birth control.In fact due to the laxative effect,many women experienced weight loss with Yaz and Yasmin,making it a favorite among women everywhere.The birth control pills were also found to have profound effects on controlling hormone induced acne flare ups.
Yaz 和它的姐妹 Yasmin(2001年)是主导口服避孕药市场的革命性的新型避孕药。与其他使用雌激素和黄体酮的药片不同，Yaz 和 Yasmin 都使用一种叫做 drospirenone 或 DSP 的合成激素。女性从 Yasmin 的使用中看到的最大的好处之一就是温和的泻药效果。这是一种与众不同的药丸，它不会给使用者带来过多的水分和腹胀负担，这通常与其他的荷尔蒙避孕方法有关。事实上，由于泻药的作用，许多女性体验到了 Yaz 和 Yasmin 的减肥效果，这使得它成为各地女性的最爱。避孕药也被发现对控制激素引起的痤疮发作有深远的影响。
But the romance was cut short when deaths started surfacing with young,healthy women who had no other anomalies or cohesive factor other than the use of Yaz or Yasmin.Michelle Pfleger was a fit,healthy 18-year-old college freshman from New Jersey when she collapsed and died from cardiac arrest due to a massive blood clot.The teen had started taking Yaz a year before to help her struggles with acne.Michelle fit none of the"high risk"categories and was well under 35,physically active and a non-smoker.According to the Coalition Against Bayer(CBG)hundreds of women have died from complications stemming from Yaz or Yasmin which has proven to be unreasonably dangerous.Phillipp Mimkes,a Board Member of CBG wants the pills and others like it pulled from the market explaining,"The Coalition Against BAYER Dangers,which has been pointing out the dangers of Yaz for years,demands a ban on all contraceptive pills with a profile of increased side effects."Despite the controversy Bayer's oral contraceptives still remain some of the most popular among consumers.
但是当年轻、健康的女性开始出现死亡的时候，这段感情就戛然而止了，她们除了使用 Yaz 或 Yasmin 之外没有其他异常或凝聚力的因素。米歇尔·普莱格来自新泽西州，18岁，身体健康，是一名大学一年级新生。当时她因大量血液凝块导致心脏骤停而死亡。这位少女一年前开始服用 Yaz，以帮助她与痤疮作斗争。米歇尔不属于"高风险"类别，她远低于35岁，身体活跃，不吸烟。根据反拜耳联盟(CBG)的数百名妇女死于由 Yaz 或 Yasmin 引起的并发症，这些并发症已被证明是不合理的危险。Cbg 董事会成员菲利普·米克斯(Phillipp Mimkes)希望这种避孕药以及其他类似药品从市场上撤下来，他解释说:"反对拜耳危险联盟(The Coalition Against BAYER risks)多年来一直在指出雅兹的危险性，要求禁止所有副作用明显增加的避孕药。"尽管存在争议，拜耳的口服避孕药仍然是最受消费者欢迎的产品之一。
Bayer is also the manufacturer of the Mirena IUD,a t-shaped plastic long-term reversible birth control device that is inserted in to the vagina.Due to its ease of use the Mirena is routinely recommended to women who forget to take birth control and is a popular choice among women serving in the armed forces.The Mirena has a superior long-term failure rate of 0.7%-similar in dependability to tubal ligation.But the convenience seems to come at a high cost,women who have the Mirena have reported dangerous complications including:birth complications,ectopic pregnancy,perforation of the uterus and chronic infections.Due to over a thousand complaints surrounding the Mirena IUD the FDA released a press release on May of 2008 forcing Bayer to highlight the serious dangers of ectopic pregnancy.In addition to changing the labeling to highlight side effects Bayer's products needed to,"Tell women who choose Mirena about the risks of ectopic pregnancy,including the loss of fertility."Up to 1 out of every 1,000 users will experience an ectopic pregnancy with the Mirena in place,and up to half of all of these will result in an ectopic pregnancy which is a potentially life-threatening complication for the mother.
拜耳公司同时也是 Mirena IUD 的制造商，这是一种 t 型塑料长期可逆的避孕器具，可以插入阴道。由于其易于使用，Mirena 经常被推荐给忘记采取避孕措施的妇女，而且是在武装部队中服役的妇女的一个普遍选择。长期失败率为0.7%，与输卵管结扎术相似。但是这种便利似乎是以高昂的代价换来的----有 Mirena 血统的妇女报告了危险的并发症，包括:生育并发症、异位妊娠、子宫穿孔和慢性感染。2008年5月，美国食品药品监督管理局发布了一份新闻稿，要求拜耳公司强调异位妊娠宫内节育器的严重危害。除了改变标签以强调拜耳产品需要的副作用之外，"告诉选择米瑞娜的妇女异位妊娠的风险，包括丧失生育能力。"每1000个用户中就有1个会体验到 Mirena 的异位妊娠，其中多达一半会导致异位妊娠，这对母亲来说是一个潜在的危及生命的并发症。
Bayer Merging With Monsanto
If all of this bad reputation wasn't enough for Bayer,Last They announced last year that they had finalized a $66 billion blockbuster deal to gobble up the agrochemicals giant Monsanto.
Bayer said they planned to drop Monsanto's 117-year-old title and would henceforth be known only as Bayer.
"Bayer will remain the company name.Monsanto will no longer be a company name,"the company said."The acquired products will retain their brand names and become part of the Bayer portfolio."
The name drop appears to be part of a strategic move geared at distancing the new behemoth from negative publicity surrounding Monsanto and genetically modified organisms(GMOs).
We can all agree that the merging of two of the most genocidal compagnies on the surface of the earth is not a good thing,and it isn't blessed with good intent.
We must be very careful while keeping an eye on these"people".