宇宙射线更新

2019年12月18日14:43:54宇宙射线更新已关闭评论 9872968字阅读9分53秒

宇宙射线更新Dec.13,2019:Something ironic is happening in Earth's atmosphere.Solar activity is low–very low.Yet atmospheric radiation is heading in the opposite direction.Cosmic rays percolating through the air around us are at a 5 year high.

20191213:具有讽刺意味的事情正在地球大气层发生。太阳活动很低——非常低。然而,大气辐射正朝着相反的方向发展。穿过我们周围空气的宇宙射线达到了5年来的最高值。

Take a look at these data gathered by cosmic ray balloons launched by Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus almost weekly since March 2015:

20153月开始,Spaceweather.com和从地球到天空演算的学生几乎每周都会收集宇宙射线气球收集的数据:宇宙射线更新

Radiation levels have been increasing almost non-stop since the monitoring program began,with recent flights registering the highest levels of all.

自监测计划开始以来,辐射水平几乎一直在增加,最近的航班记录的辐射水平是所有航班中最高的。

What's happening?The answer is"Solar Minimum"–the low point of the 11-year solar cycle.During Solar Minimum(underway now)the sun's magnetic field weakens and allows energetic particles from deep space to penetrate the Solar System.As solar activity goes down,cosmic rays go up;yin-yang.

怎么了?答案是"太阳活动极小期"——11年太阳活动周期的低点。在太阳活动极小期(现在正在进行中),太阳的磁场减弱,并允许来自太空深处的高能粒子穿透太阳系。当太阳活动减弱时,宇宙射线上升;-阳。

When cosmic rays hit the top of Earth's atmosphere,they produce a spray of secondary particles and photons that rain down on Earth's surface.This is what our balloons measure–the secondary spray.We use X-ray and gamma-ray detectors sensitive to energies in the range 10 keV to 20 MeV.This type of radiation,which you can also find in medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners,has increased more than 20%in the stratosphere.

当宇宙射线撞击地球大气层顶部时,它们会产生二次粒子和光子的喷射,这些粒子和光子会落在地球表面。这是我们的气球测量-二次喷雾。我们使用 x 射线探测器和伽马射线探测器,它们对能量在10kev 20mev 范围内敏感。在医用 x 光机和机场安检扫描仪中也可以发现这种类型的辐射,在同温层中增加了20%以上。

宇宙射线更新

Another way to measure cosmic rays is using a neutron monitor.Neutrons are an important type of secondary cosmic ray.They reach Earth's surface with relative ease and are biologically effective.Neutron monitors at the Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory in Oulu,Finland,are getting results similar to ours.Oulu data show that cosmic rays have been increasing for the past 5 years and,moreover,are within percentage points of the Space Age record.

另一种测量宇宙射线的方法是使用中子监测器。中子是一种重要的次级宇宙射线。它们到达地球表面相对容易,而且具有生物效应。奥卢 Sodankyla 地球物理观测台的中子监测器得到的结果与我们的相似。奥卢的数据显示,宇宙射线在过去5年里一直在增加,而且与太空时代的记录保持在一个百分点以内。

The Space Age record for cosmic rays isn't very old.It was was set in late 2009-early 2010 near the end of a very deep Solar Minimum much like the one we're experiencing now.As 2019 comes to a close,neutron counts at Oulu are approaching those same levels.Indeed,a new record could be just weeks or months away.

宇宙射线的太空时代记录并不是很古老。它被设定在2009年末至2010年初,接近一个非常深的太阳活动极小期的结束,很像我们现在正在经历的。随着2019年接近尾声,奥卢的中子数量正接近同样的水平。事实上,新的记录可能只需要几周或几个月的时间。

Who cares?Anyone who steps on an airplane.Cosmic rays penetrate commercial jets,delivering whole-body dosages equal to one or more dental X-rays even on regular flights across the USA.Cosmic rays pose an even greater hazard to astronauts,of course.Cosmic rays can also alter the electro-chemistry of Earth's upper atmosphere and are thought to play some role in sparking lightning.

谁在乎呢?任何踏上飞机的人。宇宙射线穿透商业喷气式飞机,即使在穿越美国的定期航班上,也能提供相当于一个或多个牙科 x 射线剂量的全身辐射。当然,宇宙射线对宇航员的危害更大。宇宙射线还可以改变地球上层大气的电化学性质,并被认为在闪电中起一定作用。

Stay tuned for updates.

请继续关注更新。

来源:https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2019/12/13/the-ironic-behavior-of-cosmic-rays/

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  • 本文由 发表于 2019年12月18日14:43:54
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