2019年7月30日14:11:37 1 98231477字阅读104分55秒



British Colonials Starved to Death 60 million-plus Indians,But,Why?



The chronic want of food and water,the lack of sanitation and medical help,the neglect of means of communication,the poverty of educational provision,the all-pervading spirit of depression that I have myself seen to prevail in our villages after over a hundred years of British rule make me despair of its beneficence.—Rabindranath Tagore


If the history of British rule in India were to be condensed to a single fact,it is this:there was no increase in India's per-capita income from 1757 to 1947.[1]


Churchill,explaining why he defended the stockpiling of food within Britain,while millions died of starvation in Bengal,told his private secretary that"the Hindus were a foul race,protected by their mere pullulation from the doom that is their due."[2]


June 27—During its 190 years of looting and pillaging,the Indian Subcontininent as a whole underwent at least two dozen major famines,which collectively killed millions of Indians throughout the length and breadth of the land.How many millions succumbed to the famines cannot be fully ascertained.However,colonial rulers'official numbers indicate it could be 60 million deaths.In reality,it could be significantly higher.种族灭绝,英国人不想让你知道——他们有组织地饿死了6000多万东印度人


British colonial analysts cited droughts as the cause of fallen agricultural production that led to these famines,but that is a lie.British rulers,fighting wars in Europe and elsewhere,and colonizing parts of Africa,were exporting grains from India to keep up their colonial conquests—while famines were raging.People in the famineaffected areas,resembling skeletons covered by skin only,were wandering around,huddling in corners and dying by the millions.The Satanic nature of these British rulers cannot be overstated.


A Systematic Depopulation Policy


Although no accurate census figure is available,in the year 1750 India's population was close to 155 million.At the time British colonial rule ended in 1947,undivided India's population reached close to 390 million.In other words,during these 190 years of colonial looting and organized famines,India's population rose by 240 million.Since 1947,during the next 68-year period,Indian Subcontininent's population,including those of India,Pakistan,and Bangladesh,has grown to close to 1.6 billion.Thus,despite poverty and economic depravity in the post-independent Indian Subcontininent,during those 68 years population has grown by almost 1.2 billion.


Records show that during the post-independence period,the Subcontininent has undergone drought conditions in parts of the land from time to time,but there was no famine,although thousands still die in the Subcontininent annually due to the lack of adequate amount of food,a poor food distribution system,and lack of sufficient nourishment.It is also to be noted that before the British colonials'jackboots got firmly planted in India,famines had occurred but with much less frequency—maybe once in a century.


There was indeed no reason for these famines to occur They occurred only because The Empire engineered them,intending to strengthen the Empire by ruthless looting and adoption of an unstated policy to depopulate India.This,they believed would bring down the Empire's cost of sustaining India.


Take,for instance,the case of Bengal,which is in the eastern part of the Subcontininent where the British East India Company(HEIC,Honorable East India Company,according to Elizabeth I's charter)had first planted its jackboots in 1757.The rapacious looters,under the leadership of Robert Clive—a degenerate and opium addict,who blew his brains out in 1774 in the London Berkley Square residence he had procured with the benefits of his looting—got control of what is now West Bengal,Bangladesh,Bihar,and Odisha(earlier,Orissa),in 1765.At the time,historical records indicate India represented close to 25%of the world's GDP,second only to China,while Britain had a paltry 2%.Bengal was the richest of the Indian provinces.

以孟加拉为例,它位于亚洲大陆的东部,1757年,英国东印度公司(HEIC,根据伊丽莎白一世的宪章,尊敬的东印度公司)第一次在那里种植长筒靴。1774年,在罗伯特·克莱夫(Robert clive)的带领下,这些贪婪的掠夺者控制了现在的西孟加拉邦、孟加拉国、比哈尔邦和奥迪萨邦(早期的奥里萨邦)。当时,历史记录显示,印度占世界 GDP 的近25%,仅次于中国,而英国只有区区2%。孟加拉是印度各省中最富有的。

Following his securing control of Bengal by ousting the Nawab in a devious battle at Plassey(Palashi),Clive placed a puppet on the throne,paid him off,and negotiated an agreement with him for the HEIC to become the sole tax collector,while leaving the nominal responsibility for government to his puppet.That arrangement lasted for a century,as more and more Indian states were bankrupted to facilitate future famines.The tax money went into British coffers,while millions were starved to death in Bengal and Bihar.

在普拉西(Palashi)一场不光彩的战役中,克莱夫推翻了纳瓦布,从而确保了对孟加拉的控制,随后他将一个傀儡放在王位上,付钱给纳瓦布,并与他谈判达成协议,让 HEIC 成为唯一的税收官,同时将政府名义上的责任留给他的傀儡。这种安排持续了一个世纪,因为越来越多的印度邦因未来饥荒而破产。税款进入了英国国库,而在孟加拉和比哈尔,数百万人饿死。

Clive,who was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1768 and whose statue stands near the British Empire's evil center,Whitehall,near the Cabinet War Room,had this to say in his defense when the British Parliament,playing"fair,"accused him of looting and other abuses in India:

克莱夫于1768年获得英国皇家学会(Royal Society)会员资格,他的雕像矗立在大英帝国邪恶的中心白厅(Whitehall)附近,靠近内阁作战室。当英国议会以"公平"的态度指责他在印度进行抢劫和其他虐待时,克莱夫为自己辩护说:

Consider the situation which the Victory of Plassey had placed on me.A great Prince was dependent upon my pleasure;an opulent city lay at my mercy;its richest bankers bid against each other for my smiles;I walked through vaults which were thrown open to me alone,piled on either hand with gold and jewels!By God,Mr.Chairman,at this moment I stand astonished at my own moderation.


However,Clive was not the only murderous British colonial ruler.The British Empire had sent one butcher after another to India,all of whom engineered looting and its consequent depopulation.



By 1770,when the first great famine occurred in Bengal,the province had been looted to the core.What followed was sheer horror.Here is how John Fiske in his American Philosopher in the Unseen World depicted the Bengal famine:


All through the stifling summer of 1770 the people went on dying.The husbandmen sold their cattle;they sold their implements of agriculture;they devoured their seed-grain;they sold their sons and daughters,till at length no buyer of children could be found;they ate the leaves of trees and the grass of the field....The streets were blocked up with promiscuous heaps of the dying and dead.Interment could not do its work quick enough;even the dogs and jackals,the public scavengers of the East,became unable to accomplish their revolting work,and the multitude of mangled and festering corpses at length threatened the existence of the citizens….[3]


Was there any reason for the famine to occur?Not if the British had not wanted it.Bengal,then,as now,harvested three crops a year.It is located in the delta of the Gangetic plain where water is more than plentiful.Even if drought occurs,it does not destroy all three crops.Moreover,as was prevalent during the Moghul days,and in earlier time,the surplus grain was stored to tide the population over if there were one or two bad crops.

发生饥荒有什么原因吗?如果英国人不想要的话就不会。当时和现在一样,孟加拉每年收获三次。它位于 Gangetic 平原的三角洲,那里水资源丰富。即使发生干旱,也不会破坏所有三种作物。此外,正如莫卧儿时期和更早时期盛行的那样,如果有一两次作物歉收,剩余的粮食被储存起来以应付人口的增长。

But the looting of grains carried out by Clive,and his gang of bandits and killers,drained grain from Bengal and resulted in 10 million deaths in the great famine,eliminating one-third of Bengal's population.


It should be noted that Britain's much-touted industrial revolution began in 1770,the very same year people were dying all over Bengal.The Boston Tea Party that triggered the American Revolution had taken place in 1773.The Boston Tea Party made the Empire realize that its days in America were numbered,and led Britain to concentrate even more on organizing the looting of India.


Why Famines Became So Prevalent During the British Raj Days


The prime reason why these devastating famines took place at a regular intervals,and were allowed to continue for years,was the British Empire's policy of depopulating its colonies.If these famines had not occurred,India's population would have reached a billion people long before the Twentieth Century arrived.That,the British Empire saw as a disaster.


To begin with,a larger Indian population would mean larger consumption by the locals,and deprive the British Raj to a greater amount of loot.The logical way to deal with the problem was to develop India's agricultural infrastructure.But that would not only force Britain to spend more money to run its colonial and bestial empire;it would also develop a healthy population which could rise up to get rid of the abomination called the British Raj.These massive famines also succeeded in weakening the social structure and backbone of the Indians,making rebellions against the colonial forces less likely.In order to perpetuate famines,and thus depopulate the"heathen"and"dark"Indians,the British imperialists launched a systematic propaganda campaign.They propped up the fraudster Parson Thomas Malthus and promoted his non-scientific gobbledygook,"The Essay on Population."There he claimed:


This natural inequality of the two powers of population and of production in the earth,and that great law of our nature which must constantly keep their effects equal,form the great difficulty that to me appears insurmountable in the way to the perfectibility of society.All other arguments are of slight and subordinate consideration in comparison of this.I see no way by which man can escape from the weight of this law which pervades all animated nature.


Although Malthus was ordained in the Anglican Church,British Empire made him a paid"economist"of the British East India Company,which,with the charter from Queen Elizabeth I under its belt,monopolized trade in Asia,colonizing vast tracts of the continent using its well-armed militia fighting under the English flag of St.George.


Malthus was picked up at the Haileybury and Imperial Service College,which was also the recruiting ground of some of the worst colonial criminals.This college was where the makers of British Empire's murderous policies in India were trained.Some prominent alumni of Haileybury include Sir John Lawrence(Viceroy of India from 1864-68)and Sir Richard Temple(Lt.Governor of Bengal and later,Governor of Bombay presidency).

马尔萨斯是在黑利伯瑞学院被捕的,那里也是一些最恶劣的殖民罪犯的招募基地。这所学院是大英帝国在印度谋杀政策制定者的训练所。海利伯里一些著名的校友包括 John Lawrence 爵士(1864-68年印度总督) Richard Temple 爵士(孟加拉副总督及后来的孟买省总督)

While Parson Malthus was putting forward his sinister"scientific theory"to justify depopulation as a natural and necessary process,The British Empire collected a whole bunch of other"economists"who wrote about the necessity of free trade.Free trade played a major role in pushing through the Empire's genocidal depopulation of India,through the British Raj's efforts.In fact,free trade is the other side of the Malthus'population-control coin.


By the time the great famine of 1876 arrived,Britain had already built some railroads in India.The railroads,which were touted as institutional safeguards against famines,were instead used by merchants to ship grain inventories from outlying drought-stricken districts to central depots for hoarding.In addition,free traders'opposition to price control ushered in a frenzy of grain speculation.As a result,capital was raised to import grains from drought-stricken areas,and further the calamity.The rise of price of grain was spectacularly rapid,and grain was taken from where it was most needed,to be stored in warehouses until the prices rose even higher.


The British Raj knew or should have known.Even if the British rulers did not openly encourage this process,they were fully aware of it,and they were perfectly comfortable in promoting free trade at the expense of millions of lives.This is how Mike Davis described what happened:


The rise[of prices]was so extraordinary,and the available supply,as compared with well-known requirements,so scanty that merchants and dealers,hopeful of enormous future gains,appeared determined to hold their stocks for some indefinite time and not to part with the article which was becoming of such unwonted value.It was apparent to the Government that facilities for moving grain by the rail were rapidly raising prices everywhere,and that the activity of apparent importation and railway transit,did not indicate any addition to the food stocks of the Presidency.…retail trade up-country was almost at a standstill.Either prices were asked which were beyond the means of the multitude to pay,or shops remained entirely closed.


At the time,Lord Lytton,a favorite poet of Queen Victoria who is known as a"butcher"to many Indians,was the Viceroy.He wholeheartedly opposed all efforts to stockpile grain to feed the famine-stricken population because that would interfere with market forces.In the autumn of 1876,while the monsoon crop was withering in the fields of southern India,Lytton was absorbed in organizing the immense Imperial Assemblage in Delhi to proclaim Victoria Empress of India.


How did Lytton justify this?He was an avowed admirer and follower of Adam Smith.Author Mike Davis writes that Smith


a century earlier in The Wealth of Nations had asserted(vis-à-vis the terrible Bengal droughtfamine of 1770)that famine has never arisen from any other cause but the violence of government attempting,by improper means,to remedy the inconvenience of dearth,Lytton was implementing what Smith had taught him and other believers of free trade.Smith's injunction against state attempts to regulate the price of grain during the 1770 famine had been taught for years in the East India Company's famous college at Haileybury.[4]

早在一个世纪以前,《国富论》(1770年可怕的孟加拉旱灾)就断言,饥荒从来不是由其他原因引起的,而是由于政府采取不正当手段试图弥补缺乏的不便,利顿正在实施史密斯教给他和其他自由贸易信徒的东西。1770年饥荒期间,东印度公司(East India Company)著名的黑利伯里学院多年来一直在传授史密斯反对国家控制粮食价格的禁令。[4]

Lytton issued strict orders that"there is to be no interference of any kind on the part of Government with the object of reducing the price of food,"and"in his letters home to the India Office and to politicians of both parties,he denounced'humanitarian hysterics'."By official diktat,India,like Ireland before it,had become a Utilitarian laboratory where millions of lives were gambled,pursuant to dogmatic faith in omnipotent markets overcoming the"inconvenience of dearth."[5]


The Great Famines


Depicting the two dozen famines that killed more than 60 million Indians would require a lot of space,so I limit myself here to those that killed more than one million:


The Bengal Famine of 1770:This catastrophicfamine occurred between 1769 and 1773,and affected the lower Gangetic plain of India.The territory,then ruled by the British East India Company,included modern West Bengal,Bangladesh,and parts of Assam,Orissa,Bihar,and Jharkhand.The famine is supposed to have caused the deaths of an estimated 10 million people,approximately one-third of the population at the time.

1770年孟加拉饥荒:这场灾难性的饥荒发生在1769年到1773年之间,影响了 Gangetic 下游平原。该地区当时由英国东印度公司统治,包括现代的西孟加拉邦、孟加拉国和阿萨姆邦、奥里萨邦、比哈尔邦和恰尔肯德邦的部分地区。据估计,这场饥荒造成了约1000万人死亡,大约是当时人口的三分之一。


The Chalisa Famine of 1783-84:The Chalisa famine affected many parts of North India,especially the Delhi territories,present-day Uttar Pradesh,Eastern Punjab,Rajputana(now named,Rajasthan),and Kashmir,then all ruled by different Indian rulers.The Chalisa was preceded by a famine in the previous year,1782-83,in South India,including Madras City(now named Chennai)and surrounding areas(under British East India Company rule),and in the extended Kingdom of Mysore.Together,these two famines had taken at least 11 million lives,reports indicate.

1783年至1784年的查里萨饥荒:查里萨饥荒影响了印度北部的许多地区,特别是德里地区、今天的北方邦、东旁遮普邦、拉吉普塔纳(现名拉贾斯坦邦)和克什米尔,当时这些地区都由不同的印度统治者统治。1782年至1783年间,在南印度,包括 Madras City(现在的金奈)和周边地区(在英国东印度公司的统治下),以及延伸的东印度迈索尔土邦发生了一场饥荒。报告显示,这两场饥荒总共夺去了至少1100万人的生命。

The Doji Bara Famine(or Skull Famine)of 1791-92:This famine caused widespread mortality in Hyderabad,Southern Maratha Kingdom,Deccan,Gujarat,and Marwar(also called Jodhpur region in Rajasthan).The British policy of diverting food to Europe,of pricing the remaining grain out of reach of native Indians,and adopting agriculture policy that destroyed food production,was responsible for this one.The British had surplus supplies of grain,which was not distributed to the very people that had grown it.As a result,about 11 million died between 1789-92 of starvation and accompanying epidemics that followed.

1791-1792年的 Doji Bara 饥荒:这场饥荒造成了海得拉巴、南马拉达王国、德干、古吉拉特和 Marwar(拉贾斯坦邦的焦特布尔地区)的大面积死亡。英国将粮食转运到欧洲的政策,对印第安人无法获得的剩余粮食定价的政策,以及采取破坏粮食生产的农业政策,都是造成这一局面的原因。英国人有过剩的粮食供应,但这些粮食并没有分配给种植它们的人。结果,在1789年至1792年期间,约有1100万人死于饥饿和随之而来的流行病。

The Upper Doab Famine of 1860-61:The 1860-61 famine occurred in the British-controlled Ganga-Yamuna Doab(two waters,or two rivers)area engulfing large parts of Rohilkhand and Ayodhya,and the Delhi and Hissar divisions of the then-Punjab.Eastern part of the princely state of Rajputana.According to"official"British reports,about two million people were killed by this famine.

1860-61年的上 Doab 饥荒:1860-61年的饥荒发生在英国控制的 Ganga-Yamuna Doab(两条或两条河流)地区,吞没了 Rohilkhand 和阿约提亚的大部分地区,以及当时的旁遮普邦的德里和希萨省。Rajputana 王国的东部。根据英国"官方"的报告,大约有两百万人死于这场饥荒。

The Orissa Famine of 1866:Although it affected Orissa the most,this famine affected India's east coast along the Bay of Bengal stretching down south to Madras,covering a vast area.One million died,according to the British"official"version.


The Rajputana famine of 1869:The Rajputana famine of 1869 affected an area of close to 300,000 square miles which belonged mostly to the princely states and the British territory of Ajmer.This famine,according to"official"British claim,killed 1.5 million.


The Great Famine of 1876-78:This famine killed untold numbers of Indians in the southern part and raged for about four years.It affected Madras,Mysore,Hyderabad and Bombay(now called,Mumbai).The famine also subsequently visited Central Province(now called,Madhya Pradesh)and parts of undivided Punjab.The death toll from this famine was in the range of 5.5 million people.Some other figures indicate the number of deaths could be as high as 11 million.


Indian famine of 1896-97 and 1899-1900:This one affected Madras,Bombay,Deccan,Bengal,United Provinces(now called,Uttar Pradesh),Central Provinces,Northern and eastern Rajputana,parts of Central India,and Hyderabad:six million reportedly died in British territory during these two famines.The number of deaths occurred in the princely states is not known.


The Bengal Famine of 1943-44:This Churchill-orchestrated famine in Bengal in 1943-1944 killed an estimated 3.5 to 5 million people.



Relief Camps,or Concentration camps


There were several policy-arrows which Adolf Hitler might have borrowed from the British quiver to kill millions,but one that he borrowed for certain in setting up his death camps,was how the British ran the camps to provide"relief"to the starving millions.Anyone who entered these relief camps,did not exit alive.


Take the actions of Viceroy Lytton's deputy,Richard Temple,another Haileybury product imbued with the doctrine of depopulation as the necessary means to keep the Empire strong and vigorous.Temple was under orders from Lytton to make sure there was no"unnecessary"expenditure on relief works.


According to some analysts,Temple's camps were not very different from Nazi concentration camps.People already half-dead from starvation had to walk hundreds of miles to reach these relief camps.Additionally,he instituted a food ration for starving people working in the camps,which was less than that was given to the inmates of Nazi concentration camps.


The British refused to provide adequate relief for famine victims on the grounds that this would encourage indolence.Sir Richard Temple,who was selected to organize famine relief efforts in 1877,set the food allotment for starving Indians at 16 ounces of rice per day—less than the diet for inmates at the Buchenwald concentration camp for the Jews in Hitler's Germany.British disinclination to respond with urgency and vigor to food deficits resulted in a succession of about two dozen appalling famines during the British occupation of India.These swept away tens of millions of people.The frequency of famine showed a disconcerting increase in the nineteenth century.[6]


It was deliberate then,and it's deliberate now.



"Why the British should apologise to India(by Shashi Tharoor)""为什么英国应该向印度道歉(沙希·塔鲁尔)"

…The centenary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre is the right occasion for Britain to apologise for the evils of colonialism.


Two years ago,on the UK publication of my book Inglorious Empire:What The British Did to India,I took the unusual step of demanding an apology from Britain to India.I even suggested the time and place–the centenary,on April 13,2019,of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar.This single event was in many ways emblematic of the worst of the"Raj",the British Empire in India.

两年前,在英国出版我的书《不光彩的帝国:英国人对印度的所作所为》(ingloious Empire:What The British Did to India)时,我采取了不同寻常的步骤,要求英国向印度道歉。我甚至建议了时间和地点——2019413日,在阿姆利则举行的阿姆利则血案纪念活动。这一事件在许多方面都象征着印度"统治时期"——大英帝国——最糟糕的时期。

The background to the massacre lay in the British betrayal of promises to reward India for its services in the First World War.After making enormous sacrifices,and an immense contribution in men and materiel,blood and treasure,to the British war effort,Indian leaders expected to be rewarded with some measure of self-government.Those hopes were belied.


When protests broke out,the British responded with force.They arrested nationalist leaders in the city of Amritsar and opened fire on protestors,killing ten.In the riot that ensued,five Englishmen were killed and an Englishwoman assaulted(though she was rescued,and carried to safety,by Indians).Brigadier General Reginald Dyer was sent to Amritsar to restore order;he forbade demonstrations or processions,or even gathering in groups of more than three.


The thousands of people who had gathered in the walled garden of Jallianwala Bagh to celebrate the major religious festival of Baisakhi were unaware of this order.Dyer did not seek to find out what they were doing.He took a detachment of soldiers in armoured cars,equipped with machine-guns,and without ordering the crowd to disperse or issuing so much as a warning,ordered his troops to open fire from close quarters.They used 1,650 rounds,killed at least 379 people(the number the British were prepared to admit to;the Indian figures are considerably higher)and wounded 1,137.Barely a bullet,Dyer noted with satisfaction,was wasted.

成千上万的人聚集在札连瓦拉园的围墙花园里,庆祝 Baisakhi 主要的宗教节日,但他们并不知道这个命令。戴尔没有设法弄清楚他们在做什么。他带领一支装甲车的士兵分队,配备机关枪,没有命令人群散开,也没有发出任何警告,命令他的部队从近距离开火。他们使用了1650发子弹,造成至少379人死亡(英国准备承认这个数字;印度的数字要高得多)1137人受伤。几乎没有一颗子弹,戴尔满意地指出,被浪费了。

Dyer did not order his men to fire in the air,or at the feet of their targets.They fired,on his orders,into the chests,the faces,and the wombs of the unarmed,screaming,defenceless crowd.After it was over,he refused permission for families to tend to the dead and the dying,leaving them to rot for hours in the hot sun,and inflicted numerous other humiliations on Indians,from forcing them to crawl on their bellies on a street,where an Englishwoman had been assaulted(and beating them with rifle butts if they lifted their heads),to pettier indignities like confiscating electric fans from their homes.


Dyer never showed the slightest remorse or self-doubt.


This was a"rebel meeting,"he claimed,an act of defiance of his authority that had to be punished."It was no longer a question of merely dispersing the crowd"but one of producing a'moral effect'that would ensure the Indians'submission.He noted that he had personally directed the firing towards the five narrow exits because that was where the crowd was most dense:"the targets,"he declared,"were good."



Screenshot from film Gandhi(1982);Director Richard Attenborough;International Film Investors;National Film Development Corporation of India(NFDC);Goldcrest Films International;Indo-British;Carolina Bank 电影截图:甘地(1982);李察·艾登堡禄导演;国际电影投资者;印度国家电影发展公司(NFDC);Goldcrest Films International;印度-英国;卡罗莱纳银行

News of Dyer's barbarism was suppressed by the British for six months,and when outrage at reports of his excesses mounted,an attempt was made to whitewash his sins by an official commission of enquiry,which only found him guilty of'grave error'.Finally,as details emerged of the horror,Dyer was relieved of his command and censured by the House of Commons,but promptly exonerated by the House of Lords and allowed to retire.Rudyard Kipling,the flatulent poetic voice of British imperialism,hailed him as'The Man Who Saved India'.

关于戴尔野蛮暴行的消息被英国压制了六个月,当对他暴行的报道越来越多的愤怒时,一个官方调查委员会试图掩饰他的罪行,结果只发现他犯了严重错误。最后,随着恐怖事件的细节浮出水面,Dyer 被解除了指挥权,并受到最高英国下议院的谴责,但很快被上议院宣布无罪,并被允许退休。拉迪亚德·吉卜林,英国帝国主义的浮夸诗人,称赞他为"拯救印度的人"

Even this did not strike his fellow Britons as adequate recompense for his glorious act of mass murder.They ran a public campaign for funds to honour his cruelty and collected the quite stupendous sum of£26,317,1s 10d,worth over a quarter of a million pounds today.It was presented to him together with a jewelled sword of honour.

即便如此,他的英国同胞们也不认为这是对他光荣的大屠杀行为的足够补偿。他们发起了一场为纪念他的残忍行为的公共运动,并收集了26,317,1s 10d 的惊人数目,今天价值超过25万英镑。这把剑连同一把珠光宝气的荣誉宝剑一起送给了他。

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was no act of insane frenzy but a conscious,deliberate imposition of colonial will.Dyer was an efficient killer rather than a crazed maniac;his was merely the evil of the unimaginative,the brutality of the military bureaucrat.But his action that Baisakhi day came to symbolize the evil of the system on whose behalf,and in whose defence,he was acting.


Everything about the incident–the betrayal of promises made to India,the cruelty of the killings,the brutality and racism that followed,the self-justification,exoneration and reward–collectively symbolized everything that was wrong about the Raj.


It represented the worst that colonialism could become,and by letting it occur,the British crossed that point of no return that exists only in the minds of men–that point which,in any unequal relationship,both ruler and subject must instinctively respect if their relationship is to survive…




1.Davis,Mike.Late Victorian Holocausts:El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World,London,Verso Books,2001.

1.戴维斯,迈克。维多利亚时代晚期的全新世:厄尔尼诺饥荒和第三世界的形成,伦敦,Verso Books2001

2.Madhusree Mukerjee,Churchill's Secret War:The British Empire and the Ravaging of India during World War II,New York:Basic Books.








6.Bhatia,B.M.,Famines in India,A Study in Some Aspects of the Economic History of India,1860-1945,Asia Publishing House,Bombay,1963.


Dr Ramtanu Maitra
A specialist on South Asian Affairs who operates out of Washington D.C.Ramtanu Maitra specialises on strategic and infrastructural developmental studies with the focus on South Asia.
He holds a Masters Degree in Structural Engineering and was working as a Senior Project Engineer with the Nuclear Power Services,Secaucus,NJ.
Ramtanu Maitra participated in developing a document,India:An agro-industrial superpower by 2020,in 1981.
He established and published a quarterly journal,Fusion Asia,on science,technology,energy and economics from New Delhi for more than 10 years(1984-1994).
He wrote and published the first feature report on India's high-energy physics program based in PRL,Ahmedabad.Prepared and published a detailed report on Ganges River Valley Development that was presented at an international conference inaugurated by the late president of India,Shri K.R.Narayanan,then Minister for Planning.
He participated on behalf of Fusion Asia on a feasibility study that also involved the Mitsubishi Research Institute(Tokyo)and the Thai Citizen Forum.Presented papers at a number of international conferences on strategic infrastructures in Bogota,Colombia,Tokyo,Japan,Kolkata,Indore,Madurai,Indore,New Delhi,among other Indian cities.
In 1994,Shri Maitra established New Delhi bureau for Asia Times,a Bangkok-based news daily published simultaneously from Bangkok,Hong Kong,Kuala Lumpur and New York.
Presently,he conducts research,analysis,writing on international economic and strategic developments for publications internationally,including:Foresight(Japan);Aakrosh,Agni,Indian Defense and Technology(India);Asia Times Online(Hong Kong);and Executive Intelligence Review(USA).

南亚事务专家 Ramtanu Maitra 博士在华盛顿特区工作,专门从事以南亚为重点的战略和基础设施发展研究。他拥有结构工程硕士学位,并在 Secaucus 核电服务公司担任高级项目工程师。1981年,拉姆塔努·梅特拉参与制定了一份文件《印度:2020年成为一个农工业超级大国》。他在新德里创办并出版了一本关于科学、技术、能源和经济的季刊《聚变亚洲》(Fusion Asia),时间长达10多年(1984年至1994)。他撰写并发表了第一篇关于 Ahmedabad 高能物理项目的专题报告。编写并发表了一份关于恒河流域开发的详细报告,该报告在印度已故总统、当时的计划部长 Shri k.r.Narayanan 主持的一次国际会议上提交。他代表融合亚洲参加了一个可行性研究会议,该会议还包括东京三菱总合研究所和泰国公民论坛。在波哥大、哥伦比亚、东京、日本、加尔各答、印多尔、马杜赖、印多尔、新德里和其他印度城市举行的战略基础设施国际会议上发表论文。1994年,梅特拉创办了《亚洲时报》新德里分社,这是一家总部设在曼谷的新闻日报,同时在曼谷、香港、吉隆坡和纽约发行。现时,他为国际出版物进行研究、分析及撰写国际经济及策略发展的文章,包括:Foresight(日本);AakroshAgniIndian Defense and Technology(印度);Asia Times Online(香港); Executive Intelligence Review(美国)Http://www.sasfor.com/about.html

Ramtanu Maitra is a regular columnist with the Executive Intelligence Review(EIR),a news weekly published from Washington DC.He writes columns for Asia Times of Hong Kong,Frontier Post of Peshawar and some other newspapers in Asia on South Asian political economy and Asian security.He has written on terrorism in a number of publications in the United States and India.



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