你希望你不知道的关于转基因生物的一切

2019年12月14日10:01:59你希望你不知道的关于转基因生物的一切已关闭评论 975 9539字阅读31分47秒
摘要

转基因生物不是杂交的,不能在自然界中自然产生。例如,基因工程—-改变外来物种的 DNA,或者编辑掉DNA 以永久性地去除物种的某个特性,或者改变 DNA 或 rna 以获得所需的特性—-并不是自然发生的。它在自然界中是找不到任何形状或形式的。


As a mother,my first and foremost concern is the well being of my family.Many things can threaten the safety of my family,especially our children,who are more vulnerable due to the underdevelopment of their bodies.One of those things is Genetically Modified Organisms,or GMOs which have been in our food supply for twenty years,unlabeled.

作为一个母亲,我最关心的是家庭的幸福。很多事情会威胁到我家人的安全,尤其是我们的孩子,他们因为身体发育不足而更加脆弱。其中之一就是转基因生物,它们已经在我们的食物供应中存在了二十年,没有标记。

The safety of GMOs has been highly contested.While proponents of GMOs say that they are safe,recent studies show that they have inherent risks.They say that GMOs happen in nature all the time—like a hybrid.However,GMOs are created only in a lab with a gene gun and by a process that scientists have patented to protect their technology.

转基因生物的安全性一直备受争议。虽然转基因生物的支持者说它们是安全的,但最近的研究表明它们有内在的风险。他们说转基因生物在自然界中一直存在ーー就像一个混合体。然而,转基因生物只能在实验室里用基因枪和科学家为保护他们的技术而申请专利的方法制造出来。

GMOs are not hybrids and cannot occur naturally in nature.Genetic engineering,for example,the altering of DNA with foreign species,or editing out DNA to remove a trait from a species permanently,or altering DNA or RNAi for a desired trait,does not happen naturally.It is not found in nature in any shape or form.

转基因生物不是杂交的,不能在自然界中自然产生。例如,基因工程----改变外来物种的 DNA,或者编辑掉DNA 以永久性地去除物种的某个特性,或者改变 DNA rna 以获得所需的特性----并不是自然发生的。它在自然界中是找不到任何形状或形式的。

The scientists and media that say GMOs are natural are misleading the public.Many of these scientists are not impartial,but are instead supported by advertising dollars or grants to universities from the GMO/chemical manufacturers and have incentives to make these claims.

科学家和媒体说转基因生物是天然的,这是在误导公众。这些科学家中的许多人并不公正,而是靠转基因生物/化学制造商向大学提供的广告资金或补助金支持,并有动机提出这些主张。

Regardless of their reasoning,they are certainly ignoring the"precautionary principle"—the principle that the introduction of a new product or process whose ultimate effects are disputed or unknown should be resisted.Any scientist worth his or her salt will admit that many aspects of GMOs are still unknown.

不管他们的理由是什么,他们肯定是忽视了"预防原则"原则——即应该抵制引进一种新产品或新工艺,因为这种产品或工艺的最终效果是有争议的,或者是未知的。任何称职的科学家都会承认转基因生物的许多方面仍然是未知的。

Here's what we do know—there are three general types of GMOs:

以下是我们所知道的----有三种基因改造生物:

1.Bt Toxins

1.Bt 毒素

In a Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)GMO corn,for instance,the Bt toxin from the carcass of a dead grain caterpillar is genetically engineered to continuously reproduce itself and create Bt toxin.It does not dry up and die off as it does naturally in organic farming practices.

例如,在 Bt(苏云金芽孢杆菌)转基因玉米中,从死谷毛虫尸体中提取的 Bt 毒素经过基因工程处理,能够持续自我繁殖并产生 Bt 毒素。它不会像有机农业那样自然枯竭和死亡。

The GMO Bt toxin becomes a toxin factory.It is then put into the transfer"vehicle,"so to speak,of the cauliflower mosaic virus or other bacteria and injected into the DNA of the corn so that every single cell of the plant becomes infected with this virus or bacteria with the Bt toxin factory inside.

转基因 Bt 毒素变成了一个毒素工厂。然后,它被放入传播"载体",也就是说,花椰菜花叶病毒或其他细菌,并注入玉米的 DNA,这样植物的每一个细胞都会感染这种病毒或内部有 Bt 毒素工厂的细菌。

When the corn rootworm eats any part of the corn plant,the Bt toxin creates a toxin factory in the rootworm's stomach.The toxins cause holes in the worm's stomach that break open,the toxin leaks into the worm's body,and the rootworm dies.Bt GMO corn is a registered pesticide with the EPA.Most people would agree that a toxin that explodes the stomach of a bug is not a toxin that they would care to be eating in their corn chips,cereal,or tacos.

当玉米根虫吃掉玉米植株的任何部分时,Bt 毒素会在根虫的胃里制造毒素。这些毒素会在蠕虫的胃部造成破口,毒素会渗入蠕虫的体内,然后根虫就会死亡。Bt 转基因玉米是美国环保署注册的杀虫剂。大多数人都会同意,一种能使细菌胃部爆炸的毒素,并不是一种他们愿意在玉米片、谷类食品或玉米卷中食用的毒素。

2.Herbicide Tolerant GMOs

2.抗除草剂转基因生物

Herbicide tolerant(HT)GMOs—typically corn,soy,sugar beets,canola,and cottonseed—are genetically engineered to resist herbicides,so farmers can drive a spraying tractor or aerial spray an entire field and kill only the weeds.Over 80 percent of the herbicide tolerant GMO crops have been engineered to withstand glyphosate herbicides.

耐除草剂(HT)转基因生物——通常是玉米、大豆、甜菜、油菜和棉籽——通过基因工程可以抵抗除草剂,因此农民可以驾驶喷洒式拖拉机或空中喷洒整片土地,只杀死杂草。超过80%的耐除草剂转基因作物已经被改造成能够抵抗草甘膦除草剂。

Glyphosate,originally used as a pipe cleaner,is the declared active chemical ingredient in Roundup.Hundreds of millions of pounds of glyphosate herbicides are used in the USA every year.Although proponents claim that GMOs are not significantly different from non-GMOs,new scientific studies show otherwise.

草甘膦最初用作管道清洁剂,是草甘膦除草剂农达中宣布的活性化学成分。美国每年使用数亿磅的草甘膦除草剂。虽然支持者声称转基因生物与非转基因生物没有显著区别,但新的科学研究却表明并非如此。

There is more than one problem with GMO technology and glyphosate-tolerance traits:

转基因技术和草甘膦耐受特性存在不止一个问题:

    Glyphosate herbicides do not dry off,wash off,or cook off.They are absorbed into the cells of the plant.When we consume the toxic chemicals,they do impact our health.

草甘膦除草剂不会变干,不会被洗掉,也不会被煮掉。它们被植物的细胞吸收。当我们摄入有毒化学物质时,它们确实会影响我们的健康

    Glyphosate functions as a chelator,meaning it holds or makes unavailable the vital nutrients of any living thing it touches.Reducing the nutrient content in our food supply is counter to good health and leads to mineral and vitamin deficiencies,which can cause illness and cancer.

草甘膦具有螯合剂的功能,这意味着它可以持有或使接触到的任何生物的重要营养成分无法获得。减少我们食物中的营养素含量不利于健康,导致矿物质和维生素缺乏,从而引起疾病和癌症

    The manufacturer Monsanto first claimed that glyphosate-based herbicides only affect the shikimate pathway(a metabolic route used to produce essential folates and amino acids,which play a central role both as building blocks of proteins and with metabolism)in plants,which is not found in humans.Recently scientists have discovered that glyphosate herbicides do affect the shikimate pathway found in our gut bacteria,which is where our immune system lies.

孟山都公司最初声称,草甘膦基除草剂只影响植物中的莽草酸途径(一种用于生产必需叶酸和氨基酸的代谢途径,这种途径既是蛋白质的组成部分,也与代谢有关),而这种途径在人类中是不存在的。最近科学家们发现,草甘膦除草剂确实会影响我们肠道细菌中的莽草酸途径,而这正是我们的免疫系统所在。

3.What I am Calling DT or Desired Trait GMOs

3.我称之为 DT 或者渴望的特质转基因生物

The third kind of GMO is engineered to have a desired trait,like greener lettuce or a redder tomato.GMO proponents call them GMO 2.0—but I dislike the insinuation that they are somehow"better or improved"so I simply call them"Desired Trait"or DT GMOs.They do not include pesticide or herbicide tolerance,so they seem less harmful,but there are unknown risks to genetically modifying genes for any reason.

第三种转基因生物被设计成具有期望的特性,比如更绿的生菜或者更红的西红柿。转基因生物的支持者称它们为转基因生物2.0,但我不喜欢这种含沙射影的说法,即它们在某种程度上是"更好或更好"的,所以我只是简单地称它们为"渴望的特性" DT。它们不包括对杀虫剂或除草剂的耐受性,因此它们的危害似乎较小,但基因改造基因出于任何原因都存在未知的风险。

It is unknown if they are on the market currently because they are unlabeled.(GMOs are not required to be labeled in the USA.)We do know that the Simplot potatoes,the Arctic(non-browning)apple,the pink pineapple,Hawaiian papaya,and some varieties of zucchini and yellow crookneck squash are all examples of Desired Trait GMOs currently on the US market.

目前还不清楚它们是否在市场上,因为它们没有标记。(在美国,转基因生物不需要贴标签。)我们知道,辛普洛土豆、北极苹果、粉红菠萝、夏威夷木瓜以及一些品种的西葫芦和黄瓜都是目前美国市场上理想特性转基因生物的例子。

It should be noted that after twenty years of claiming GMOs are beneficial,there is not one GMO on the market that has provided any improved nutritional benefit to humans.

应该指出的是,在宣称转基因生物有益的20年之后,市场上没有一个转基因生物为人类提供了任何改善的营养益处。

RNAi GMOs could be extremely dangerous because we,as parents or consumers,would have no idea if these promoters are waking up genes of rare diseases or if the silencers are silencing genes in our children or our own bodies.We would never have any way of knowing or proving if our child's rare disease or health issue was connected to GMOs.This unknown is unacceptable.

Rna 干扰转基因生物可能极其危险,因为我们作为父母或消费者,不知道这些启动子是唤醒了罕见疾病的基因,还是沉默者在我们的孩子或我们自己的身体中抑制了基因。我们永远无法知道或证明我们孩子的罕见疾病或健康问题是否与转基因生物有关。这种未知是不可接受的。

There are new genetic engineering technologies that are constantly being developed.The problem is that,as it currently stands,they will not be considered GMO and therefore not labeled—not even with a Quick Response(QR)code or symbol as the recently passed GMO labeling"law"requires.

新的基因工程技术正在不断地发展。问题在于,就目前的情况而言,它们不会被视为转基因生物,因此也不会被贴上标签ーー即使是最近通过的转基因标签"法律"要求的快速反应(Quick ResponseQR)代码或标志也不会被贴上。

(Law is put in quotes because it is the opinion of the author that a law that does not require mandatory labeling,with wording on the package,is not a law.It is a farce.)

(法律之所以被引用,是因为作者认为不要求在包装上加上强制性标签的法律不是法律。这是一场闹剧)

Nanotechnology

纳米技术

There are several types of nanotechnology.One concerning nano application in the food sector is nano-clay plastic polymers used as a coating to keep pesticide gasses from mixing with our food.

有几种类型的纳米技术。其中一个涉及纳米应用在食品部门是纳米粘土塑料聚合物用作涂料,以防止农药气体混入我们的食品。

The Food Packaging Forum Foundation admits that"the migration potential of engineered nanomaterials(NMs)from food contact materials into food cannot be easily predicted.Even within one batch of nanoparticles,size may differ significantly,and the primary components of the nanoparticles may still remain in the mixture as impurities."

食品包装论坛基金会承认,"工程纳米材料(NMs)从食品接触材料迁移到食品的潜力不容易预测。即使在一批纳米粒子中,粒子的大小也可能存在显著差异,而且纳米粒子的主要成分可能仍以杂质的形式存在于混合物中。"

However,buying whole,organic,seasonal food from your farmer's market,Community Supported Agriculture(CSA),or co-op eliminates the need for or use of nanomaterials to protect from pesticide gassing and antimicrobials,and in addition you reduce plastic packaging in landfills.

然而,从农贸市场、社区支持农业(CSA)或合作社购买完整的、有机的季节性食品,就不再需要或使用纳米材料来保护农药和抗菌剂,此外,你还可以减少垃圾填埋场的塑料包装。

Synthetic biology

合成生物学

Synthetic biology treats genes like computer code,remixing DNA sequences to create foods(and medicines,biofuels,and lots of other things)that do not occur in nature.Scientists are literally printing DNA and then placing that DNA in GMO yeast to create SynBio vanillin.

合成生物学把基因当作计算机编码,通过重组 DNA 序列创造出自然界中不存在的食物(以及药物、生物燃料和许多其他东西)。科学家们正在打印 DNA,然后将 DNA 放入转基因酵母中,生成合成生物香兰素。

CRISPR technology

Crispr 技术

CRISPR/Cas9 genetic modification allows the permanent modification of genes within organisms.In other words,this type of genetic engineering can eliminate a genetic trait in an entire species forever—even in humans.

Crispr/cas9基因工程可以在生物体内对基因进行永久性修饰。换句话说,这种类型的基因工程可以永远消除整个物种的基因特征ーー即使是人类。

One might well ask:Who decides who gets to play God?Who decides what traits are or are not desirable?What are the ramifications of these decisions?

有人可能会问:谁决定谁扮演上帝?谁来决定哪些特征是可取的,哪些是不可取的?这些决定的后果是什么?

Dr.Vandana Shiva,world-renowned eco-activist,founder of Navdanya,and author of numerous books on ecology,recently discussed a study published in the journal Nature Methods May 30,2017 issue showing that one gene edit resulted in over sixteen hundred mutations per mouse.Clearly,the ramifications are uncontrollable.She says,"GMOs are not an invention to be patented,they are a pollution of life."I agree.

Vandana Shiva 博士,世界著名的生态活动家,Navdanya 的创始人,众多生态学书籍的作者,最近讨论了发表在2017530日的《自然方法》杂志上的一项研究,该研究表明一次基因编辑导致每只老鼠超过1600个突变。显然,后果是无法控制的。她说,"转基因生物不是一项可以申请专利的发明,它们是对生命的污染。"我同意。

»Source

来源:https://eraoflight.com/2019/12/13/everything-you-wish-you-didnt-know-about-gmos/

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