2019年12月14日10:01:59转基因相关你希望你不知道的关于转基因生物的一切已关闭评论1.3K25字数 9539阅读31分47秒阅读模式

转基因生物不是杂交的,不能在自然界中自然产生。例如,基因工程—-改变外来物种的 DNA,或者编辑掉DNA 以永久性地去除物种的某个特性,或者改变 DNA 或 rna 以获得所需的特性—-并不是自然发生的。它在自然界中是找不到任何形状或形式的。


As a mother,my first and foremost concern is the well being of my family.Many things can threaten the safety of my family,especially our children,who are more vulnerable due to the underdevelopment of their bodies.One of those things is Genetically Modified Organisms,or GMOs which have been in our food supply for twenty years,unlabeled.


The safety of GMOs has been highly contested.While proponents of GMOs say that they are safe,recent studies show that they have inherent risks.They say that GMOs happen in nature all the time—like a hybrid.However,GMOs are created only in a lab with a gene gun and by a process that scientists have patented to protect their technology.


GMOs are not hybrids and cannot occur naturally in nature.Genetic engineering,for example,the altering of DNA with foreign species,or editing out DNA to remove a trait from a species permanently,or altering DNA or RNAi for a desired trait,does not happen naturally.It is not found in nature in any shape or form.

转基因生物不是杂交的,不能在自然界中自然产生。例如,基因工程----改变外来物种的 DNA,或者编辑掉DNA 以永久性地去除物种的某个特性,或者改变 DNA rna 以获得所需的特性----并不是自然发生的。它在自然界中是找不到任何形状或形式的。

The scientists and media that say GMOs are natural are misleading the public.Many of these scientists are not impartial,but are instead supported by advertising dollars or grants to universities from the GMO/chemical manufacturers and have incentives to make these claims.


Regardless of their reasoning,they are certainly ignoring the"precautionary principle"—the principle that the introduction of a new product or process whose ultimate effects are disputed or unknown should be resisted.Any scientist worth his or her salt will admit that many aspects of GMOs are still unknown.


Here's what we do know—there are three general types of GMOs:


1.Bt Toxins

1.Bt 毒素

In a Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)GMO corn,for instance,the Bt toxin from the carcass of a dead grain caterpillar is genetically engineered to continuously reproduce itself and create Bt toxin.It does not dry up and die off as it does naturally in organic farming practices.

例如,在 Bt(苏云金芽孢杆菌)转基因玉米中,从死谷毛虫尸体中提取的 Bt 毒素经过基因工程处理,能够持续自我繁殖并产生 Bt 毒素。它不会像有机农业那样自然枯竭和死亡。

The GMO Bt toxin becomes a toxin factory.It is then put into the transfer"vehicle,"so to speak,of the cauliflower mosaic virus or other bacteria and injected into the DNA of the corn so that every single cell of the plant becomes infected with this virus or bacteria with the Bt toxin factory inside.

转基因 Bt 毒素变成了一个毒素工厂。然后,它被放入传播"载体",也就是说,花椰菜花叶病毒或其他细菌,并注入玉米的 DNA,这样植物的每一个细胞都会感染这种病毒或内部有 Bt 毒素工厂的细菌。

When the corn rootworm eats any part of the corn plant,the Bt toxin creates a toxin factory in the rootworm's stomach.The toxins cause holes in the worm's stomach that break open,the toxin leaks into the worm's body,and the rootworm dies.Bt GMO corn is a registered pesticide with the EPA.Most people would agree that a toxin that explodes the stomach of a bug is not a toxin that they would care to be eating in their corn chips,cereal,or tacos.

当玉米根虫吃掉玉米植株的任何部分时,Bt 毒素会在根虫的胃里制造毒素。这些毒素会在蠕虫的胃部造成破口,毒素会渗入蠕虫的体内,然后根虫就会死亡。Bt 转基因玉米是美国环保署注册的杀虫剂。大多数人都会同意,一种能使细菌胃部爆炸的毒素,并不是一种他们愿意在玉米片、谷类食品或玉米卷中食用的毒素。

2.Herbicide Tolerant GMOs


Herbicide tolerant(HT)GMOs—typically corn,soy,sugar beets,canola,and cottonseed—are genetically engineered to resist herbicides,so farmers can drive a spraying tractor or aerial spray an entire field and kill only the weeds.Over 80 percent of the herbicide tolerant GMO crops have been engineered to withstand glyphosate herbicides.


Glyphosate,originally used as a pipe cleaner,is the declared active chemical ingredient in Roundup.Hundreds of millions of pounds of glyphosate herbicides are used in the USA every year.Although proponents claim that GMOs are not significantly different from non-GMOs,new scientific studies show otherwise.


There is more than one problem with GMO technology and glyphosate-tolerance traits:


    Glyphosate herbicides do not dry off,wash off,or cook off.They are absorbed into the cells of the plant.When we consume the toxic chemicals,they do impact our health.


    Glyphosate functions as a chelator,meaning it holds or makes unavailable the vital nutrients of any living thing it touches.Reducing the nutrient content in our food supply is counter to good health and leads to mineral and vitamin deficiencies,which can cause illness and cancer.


    The manufacturer Monsanto first claimed that glyphosate-based herbicides only affect the shikimate pathway(a metabolic route used to produce essential folates and amino acids,which play a central role both as building blocks of proteins and with metabolism)in plants,which is not found in humans.Recently scientists have discovered that glyphosate herbicides do affect the shikimate pathway found in our gut bacteria,which is where our immune system lies.


3.What I am Calling DT or Desired Trait GMOs

3.我称之为 DT 或者渴望的特质转基因生物

The third kind of GMO is engineered to have a desired trait,like greener lettuce or a redder tomato.GMO proponents call them GMO 2.0—but I dislike the insinuation that they are somehow"better or improved"so I simply call them"Desired Trait"or DT GMOs.They do not include pesticide or herbicide tolerance,so they seem less harmful,but there are unknown risks to genetically modifying genes for any reason.

第三种转基因生物被设计成具有期望的特性,比如更绿的生菜或者更红的西红柿。转基因生物的支持者称它们为转基因生物2.0,但我不喜欢这种含沙射影的说法,即它们在某种程度上是"更好或更好"的,所以我只是简单地称它们为"渴望的特性" DT。它们不包括对杀虫剂或除草剂的耐受性,因此它们的危害似乎较小,但基因改造基因出于任何原因都存在未知的风险。

It is unknown if they are on the market currently because they are unlabeled.(GMOs are not required to be labeled in the USA.)We do know that the Simplot potatoes,the Arctic(non-browning)apple,the pink pineapple,Hawaiian papaya,and some varieties of zucchini and yellow crookneck squash are all examples of Desired Trait GMOs currently on the US market.


It should be noted that after twenty years of claiming GMOs are beneficial,there is not one GMO on the market that has provided any improved nutritional benefit to humans.


RNAi GMOs could be extremely dangerous because we,as parents or consumers,would have no idea if these promoters are waking up genes of rare diseases or if the silencers are silencing genes in our children or our own bodies.We would never have any way of knowing or proving if our child's rare disease or health issue was connected to GMOs.This unknown is unacceptable.

Rna 干扰转基因生物可能极其危险,因为我们作为父母或消费者,不知道这些启动子是唤醒了罕见疾病的基因,还是沉默者在我们的孩子或我们自己的身体中抑制了基因。我们永远无法知道或证明我们孩子的罕见疾病或健康问题是否与转基因生物有关。这种未知是不可接受的。

There are new genetic engineering technologies that are constantly being developed.The problem is that,as it currently stands,they will not be considered GMO and therefore not labeled—not even with a Quick Response(QR)code or symbol as the recently passed GMO labeling"law"requires.

新的基因工程技术正在不断地发展。问题在于,就目前的情况而言,它们不会被视为转基因生物,因此也不会被贴上标签ーー即使是最近通过的转基因标签"法律"要求的快速反应(Quick ResponseQR)代码或标志也不会被贴上。

(Law is put in quotes because it is the opinion of the author that a law that does not require mandatory labeling,with wording on the package,is not a law.It is a farce.)




There are several types of nanotechnology.One concerning nano application in the food sector is nano-clay plastic polymers used as a coating to keep pesticide gasses from mixing with our food.


The Food Packaging Forum Foundation admits that"the migration potential of engineered nanomaterials(NMs)from food contact materials into food cannot be easily predicted.Even within one batch of nanoparticles,size may differ significantly,and the primary components of the nanoparticles may still remain in the mixture as impurities."


However,buying whole,organic,seasonal food from your farmer's market,Community Supported Agriculture(CSA),or co-op eliminates the need for or use of nanomaterials to protect from pesticide gassing and antimicrobials,and in addition you reduce plastic packaging in landfills.


Synthetic biology


Synthetic biology treats genes like computer code,remixing DNA sequences to create foods(and medicines,biofuels,and lots of other things)that do not occur in nature.Scientists are literally printing DNA and then placing that DNA in GMO yeast to create SynBio vanillin.

合成生物学把基因当作计算机编码,通过重组 DNA 序列创造出自然界中不存在的食物(以及药物、生物燃料和许多其他东西)。科学家们正在打印 DNA,然后将 DNA 放入转基因酵母中,生成合成生物香兰素。

CRISPR technology

Crispr 技术

CRISPR/Cas9 genetic modification allows the permanent modification of genes within organisms.In other words,this type of genetic engineering can eliminate a genetic trait in an entire species forever—even in humans.


One might well ask:Who decides who gets to play God?Who decides what traits are or are not desirable?What are the ramifications of these decisions?


Dr.Vandana Shiva,world-renowned eco-activist,founder of Navdanya,and author of numerous books on ecology,recently discussed a study published in the journal Nature Methods May 30,2017 issue showing that one gene edit resulted in over sixteen hundred mutations per mouse.Clearly,the ramifications are uncontrollable.She says,"GMOs are not an invention to be patented,they are a pollution of life."I agree.

Vandana Shiva 博士,世界著名的生态活动家,Navdanya 的创始人,众多生态学书籍的作者,最近讨论了发表在2017530日的《自然方法》杂志上的一项研究,该研究表明一次基因编辑导致每只老鼠超过1600个突变。显然,后果是无法控制的。她说,"转基因生物不是一项可以申请专利的发明,它们是对生命的污染。"我同意。



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