深层国家对民主的摧毁

2020年3月30日09:43:57深层国家对民主的摧毁已关闭评论 46712952字阅读43分10秒
摘要

深州通常指的是那些在华盛顿秘密地长期掌权的官员,这些官员往往在联邦机构中拥有巨大的影响力,几乎没有问责制。

深层国家对民主的摧毁"Thank God for the Deep State,"declared former acting CIA chief John McLaughlin while appearing on a panel at the National Press Club last October.In 2018,the New York Times asserted that Trump's use of the term"Deep State"and similar rhetoric"fanned fears that he is eroding public trust in institutions,undermining the idea of objective truth and sowing widespread suspicions about the government and news media."

去年10月,前中央情报局代理局长约翰·麦克劳克林在全国新闻俱乐部的一次座谈会上宣称:"感谢上帝,有'深度之州'"2018年,《纽约时报》断言,特朗普使用"深州"(Deep State)一词以及类似的言辞"引发了人们的担忧,即他正在削弱公众对机构的信任,破坏客观真相的理念,并引发对政府和新闻媒体的广泛怀疑"

But barely a year later,the Deep State had gone from a figment of paranoid right-wingers'imagination to the great hope for the salvation of American democracy.Much of the media is now conferring the same exulted status on the Deep State that was previously bestowed on Special Counsel Robert Mueller.Almost immediately after its existence was no longer denied,the Deep State became the incarnation of virtue in Washington.

但仅仅一年之后,"深州"就从一群偏执的右翼想象中的虚构人物,变成了拯救美国民主的巨大希望。现在,许多媒体正在赋予深海国家以以前赋予特别检察官罗伯特·穆勒的那种欢欣鼓舞的地位。几乎就在它的存在不再被否认之后,深海之州成为了华盛顿美德的化身。

The Deep State commonly refers to officials who secretly wield power permanently in Washington,often in federal agencies with vast sway and little accountability.A New York Times article in October gushed that"over the last three weeks,the deep state has emerged from the shadows in the form of real live government officials,past and present…and provided evidence that largely backs up the still-anonymous whistle-blower"on Donald Trump's phone call to the president of Ukraine.New York Times columnist James Stewart declared,"There is a Deep State,there is a bureaucracy in our country who has pledged to respect the Constitution,respect the rule of law….They work for the American people."New York Times editorial writer Michelle Cottle proclaimed,"The deep state is alive and well"and hailed it as"a collection of patriotic public servants."They were echoing earlier declarations by Washington Post columnist Eugene Roberts and former top Justice Department official Preet Bharar:"God bless the'Deep State.'"

深州通常指的是那些在华盛顿秘密地长期掌权的官员,这些官员往往在联邦机构中拥有巨大的影响力,几乎没有问责制。去年10月,《纽约时报》的一篇文章滔滔不绝地写道,"在过去的三周里,这个深层次的国家以真实的政府官员的形式从阴影中走了出来,不管是过去的还是现在的......它提供的证据在很大程度上支持了唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)给乌克兰总统打电话时,。《纽约时报》专栏作家詹姆斯·斯图尔特宣称:"我们国家有一个深层的州,有一个官僚机构,他们承诺尊重宪法,尊重法治.....。他们为美国人民工作。"《纽约时报》社论撰稿人米歇尔·卡特尔宣称,"这个深层次的国家还活着,而且活得很好",并称赞它是"一群爱国的公务员"他们呼应了《华盛顿邮报》专栏作家尤金·罗伯茨和前司法部高级官员普里特·巴拉尔早些时候的声明:"上帝保佑'深层国家'"'

Former CIA Director John Brennan,appearing on the same panel as McLaughlin in October,declared,"The reason why Mr.Trump has this very contentious relationship with CIA and FBI and the deep state people is because they tell the truth."Much of the media coverage of the Trump impeachment is following that dubious storyline.

去年10月,前中央情报局局长约翰·布伦南(John Brennan)与麦克劳克林出现在同一个小组,他宣称,"特朗普先生之所以与中央情报局、联邦调查局(FBI)以及深州人士关系紧张,是因为他们说出了真相。"媒体对弹劾特朗普的大部分报道都跟随着这个可疑的故事情节。

"We lied,we cheated,we stole."

"我们撒谎,我们欺骗,我们偷窃。"

Five years ago,John Brennan's CIA ignited what should have been a constitutional crisis when it was caught illegally spying on the Senate Intelligence Committee,which was compiling a massive report on the CIA torture program.After 9/11,the CIA constructed an interrogation regime by"consulting Egyptian and Saudi intelligence officials and copying Soviet interrogation methods,"the New York Times reported in 2007.Secret Bush administration torture memos"set the C.I.A.loose to slam suspects'heads into walls up to 30 times in a row,to deprive suspects of sleep for more than a week straight,to confine them to small dark boxes for hours at a time…and to suffocate them with water to induce the perception that they are drowning,"Georgetown University law professor David Cole noted.But the only official who went to prison was John Kirakou,a former CIA analyst who publicly admitted that the CIA was waterboarding.

五年前,约翰布伦南(John Brennan)的中情局(CIA)被发现非法监视参议院情报委员会(Senate Intelligence Committee),从而引发了一场本应属于宪法危机的事件。参议院情报委员会当时正在编写一份。据《纽约时报》2007年报道,911之后,美国中央情报局通过"咨询埃及和沙特情报官员,抄袭苏联的审讯方法",建立了一个审讯制度。乔治城大学法学教授 David Cole 指出,布什政府的秘密刑讯备忘录"放任中情局连续30次将嫌疑人的头往墙上猛撞,剥夺嫌疑人一周以上的睡眠,每次将他们限制在小黑箱中长达数小时......并用水使他们窒息以诱发他们溺水的感觉。"。但唯一入狱的官员是前中情局分析员约翰·基拉库,他公开承认中情局实施了水刑。

Is the Deep State more trustworthy when it is killing than when it is torturing?Brennan declared in 2016 that"the president requires near-certainty of no collateral damage"before approving a drone strike.Confidential CIA documents revealed that the CIA had little or no idea whom it was killing most of the time with its drone attacks in Pakistan,Somalia,Afghanistan,Yemen,and other nations.Salon.com summarized an NBC News report:"Even while admitting that the identities of many killed by drones were not known,the CIA documents asserted that all those dead were enemy combatants.The logic is twisted:If we kill you,then you were an enemy combatant."Lying about drone killings quickly became institutionalized throughout the Deep State.The New York Times reported in 2015,"Every independent investigation of the[drone]strikes has found far more civilian casualties than administration officials admit."

深海国家在杀戮时比在折磨时更值得信任吗?布伦南在2016年宣称,在批准无人机袭击之前,"总统需要近乎确定的间接伤害(电影)"。中央情报局的机密文件显示,中央情报局很少或根本不知道它大部分时间在在巴基斯坦的无人机攻击、索马里、阿富汗、也门和其他国家杀害的是谁。沙龙网总结了 NBC 新闻的一篇报道:"尽管承认无人机杀死的许多人的身份不得而知,但中央情报局的文件断言所有这些死者都是敌方战斗人员。逻辑是扭曲的:如果我们杀了你,那么你就是敌方战斗人员。"关于无人机杀人的谎言很快在整个深州制度化。《纽约时报》在2015年报道,"每一次对无人机袭击的独立调查都发现,平民伤亡人数远远超过政府官员所承认的数字。"

The Deep State is practically designed to destroy privacy while enabling government officials to deny sweeping abuses.Former National Security Agency analyst Edward Snowden declared in 2014,"There's definitely a deep state.Trust me,I've been there."The NSA's credibility was obliterated in 2013 when Snowden revealed the NSA can tap almost any cell phone in the world,access anyone's email and web-browsing history,and crack the vast majority of computer encryption.But the NSA's definition of"terrorist suspect"was ludicrously broad,including"someone searching the web for suspicious stuff."Snowden also revealed that each day phone companies turned over tens of millions of phone records of average Americans to the feds.A few months before Snowden's revelations,National Intelligence director James Clapper lied to Congress when he denied that the NSA collects"any type of data at all on millions,or hundreds of millions of Americans."The fact that Clapper was not charged with perjury did nothing to burnish the credibility of the Justice Department.

深州实际上是为了破坏隐私而设计的,同时使政府官员能够否认广泛滥用。前美国国家安全局分析师爱德华·斯诺登在2014年宣称:"肯定存在一个深度状态。相信我,我也经历过。"2013年,斯诺登披露,美国国家安全局几乎可以窃听世界上任何一部手机,访问任何人的电子邮件和网络浏览历史,并破解绝大多数计算机加密,这使得美国国家安全局的信誉受到了损害。但美国国家安全局对"恐怖分子嫌疑人"的定义却宽泛得可笑,包括"有人在网上搜索可疑信息"斯诺登还透露,电话公司每天向联邦政府提交数千万美国人的通话记录。在斯诺登泄密事件发生的几个月前,美国国家情报总监詹姆斯·克拉珀(James Clapper)向国会撒谎,否认美国国家安全局收集"数百万或数亿美国人的任何类型的数据"虽然克拉珀没有被指控作伪证,但这丝毫没有提高司法部的可信度。

Impeachment proceedings have been spurred in large part by disputes over Donald Trump's phone call to the president of Ukraine.The House Intelligence Committee heard testimony from Lt.Col.Alexander Vindman,the Ukrainian-born officer who listened in to the call while serving on the National Security Council.Vindman was"deeply troubled by what he interpreted as an attempt by the president to subvert US foreign policy,"the Washington Post reported.Which provision of the Constitution gives junior military officers sway over foreign policy?Because Vindman objected to Trump's efforts to decrease tension with Russia,the Washington establishment quickly hailed him and thus encouraged other military officers and government officials to pull strings to subvert policies of which the media disapprove.

在很大程度上,唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)与乌克兰总统通电话引发的争议促成了弹劾程序。众议院情报委员会听取了亚历山大·文德曼中校(lt.col.Alexander Vindman)的证词。文德曼出生于乌克兰,在国家安全委员会(National Security Council)任职期间,他一直在听。据《华盛顿邮报》报道,文德曼"对奥巴马总统试图颠覆美国外交政策深感不安"。宪法的哪个条款赋予下级军官对外交政策的支配权?由于文德曼反对特朗普为缓和与俄罗斯的紧张关系所做的努力,华盛顿当权派迅速向他致敬,并因此鼓励其他军官和政府官员幕后操纵,颠覆媒体不赞成的政策。

It is naive to expect the Deep State to provide an antidote to the sordidness of American politics.The Friends of the Deep State talk of certain federal agencies as if they exist far above the sordid details of political life—or even of human nature.Former CIA boss McLaughlin declared,"This is the institution within the US government that…is institutionally committed to objectivity and to telling the truth.It's whole job is to speak the truth—it is engraved in marble in the lobby."But historically,atrium engravings have proven a weak surety for bureaucratic candor.In reality,the CIA and other Deep State agencies are notorious for suppressing convicting truths about themselves.Secretary of State Mike Pompeo recently described the CIA's modus operandi when he was director:"We lied,we cheated,we stole.It's like we had entire training courses."

指望深州能为肮脏的美国政治提供一剂解药是天真的。"深州之友"谈到某些联邦机构时,好像它们的存在远远超出了政治生活甚至人性的肮脏细节。前中央情报局局长麦克劳克林宣称:"这是美国政府内部的一个机构......从制度上承诺客观性和说出真相。整个工作就是讲真话——大厅里的大理石雕刻着这句话。"但是从历史上看,中庭雕刻已经被证明是官僚主义坦率的薄弱保证。事实上,美国中央情报局和其他深层国家机构因压制有罪的事实而臭名昭著。美国国务卿迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)最近描述了中央情报局在担任局长期间的工作方式:"我们撒谎,我们欺骗,我们偷窃。就好像我们有完整的训练课程。"

Power and truth

权力与真理

Promises that the chiefs of the CIA and other intelligence agencies will"speak truth to power"have become a Washington ritual in the years since the 9/11 attacks.No matter how brazenly political appointees lie,members of Congress assure the media and constituents that the next nominee will be as honest as George Washington.The"speak truth to power"bromide was recited after Trump nominated Gina Haspel as CIA chief.At her confirmation hearings,the public heard plenty about Haspel's meeting with Mother Teresa but almost nothing about her key role in the CIA torture scandal—including the illegal destruction of recordings of torture sessions.

美国中央情报局(CIA)和其他情报机构的负责人将"向当权者说出真相"的承诺,在911恐怖袭击发生后的几年里已经成为华盛顿的惯例。不管政治任命者如何厚颜无耻地撒谎,国会议员向媒体和选民保证,下一位提名人将会像乔治·华盛顿一样诚实。在特朗普提名吉娜·哈斯佩尔(Gina Haspel)为中央情报局(CIA)局长后,这句"向当权者说真话"的言论被引用。在哈斯佩尔的任命听证会上,公众听到了很多关于她与特蕾莎修女会面的消息,但几乎没有听到她在中情局酷刑丑闻中扮演的关键角色,包括非法销毁酷刑录音。

Another reason to distrust the Deep State is that its arch practitioners are honored regardless of their iniquities.Former CIA bosses McLaughlin and Brennan were speaking on a panel sponsored by the Michael V.Hayden Center for Intelligence,Policy,and International Security,named after the former chief of the National Security Agency and the CIA.As Trevor Timm noted in the Columbia Journalism Review in 2017,"Hayden has a long history of making misleading and outright false statements,and by the estimation of many lawyers,likely committed countless felonies during the Bush administration."Hayden set up the illegal,unconstitutional wiretapping program after 9/11 that the New York Times exposed in late 2005.When the Senate Intelligence Committee released its report on CIA torture in 2014,it included a 36-page appendix filled with Hayden's"testimony to Congress,next to the actual facts showing statement after statement he made was inaccurate,misleading,false,or outright lies,"Timm noted.Naming that Center after Hayden simply reflects the prevailing Deep State aggrandizement in the Greater Washington Metropolitan area.

另一个不信任深州的原因是,它的主要从业者被尊重,不管他们的不公正。前中情局老板麦克劳克林和布伦南是在一个由迈克尔·v·海登情报、政策和国际安全中心赞助的小组上发表上述讲话的,该中心是以前国家安全局和中情局局长的名字命名的。正如特雷弗·蒂姆(Trevor Timm)2017年在《哥伦比亚新闻评论》(Columbia Journalism Review)上指出的那样,"海登制造误导性和彻头彻尾的虚假陈述的历史由来已久,据许多律师估计,在布什政府期间,他可能犯下了
海登在2005年末《纽约时报》曝光了911事件之后,设立了非法的、违宪的窃听计划。2014年,参议院情报委员会(Senate Intelligence Committee)发布了一份关于中情局酷刑的报告,其中包括一份36页的附录,其中充满了海登"向国会提供的证词,旁边的实际事实显示,他一次又一次的陈述是不准确的、误导性的、虚假的,或者完全是谎言。以海登命名这个中心仅仅反映了大西洋华盛顿特区都会深层状态的盛行。

The Deep State has an appalling record of abusing the whistleblowers who are now being acclaimed.A draft Intelligence Community Inspector General report last year found that intelligence agencies refused to recognize retaliation against whistleblowers in 99 percent of cases.A 2017 report by Foreign Policy magazine concluded that"the intelligence community's central watchdog is in danger of crumbling thanks to mismanagement,bureaucratic battles,clashes among big personalities,and sidelining of whistleblower outreach and training efforts."After CIA Inspector General John Helgerson compiled a condemnatory report on the CIA's post–9/11 interrogation program,CIA chief Michael Hayden launched a major investigation of Helgerson in 2007,provoking outrage on Capitol Hill.(The CIA managed to delay the release of Helgerson's report for five years,thereby keeping both Congress and the American people in the dark regarding shocking abuses.)

深州有着骇人听闻的虐待告密者的记录,这些告密者现在正受到赞扬。去年的一份情报社区监察长报告草案发现,在99%的案件中,情报机构拒绝承认对告密者的报复。《外交政策》(Foreign Policy)杂志2017年的一份报告得出结论称,"由于管理不善、官僚斗争、知名人士之间的冲突,以及告密者外联和培训工作的边缘化,情报界的中央监督机构正面临崩溃的危险。"在中央情报局监察长约翰·赫尔格森(John Helgerson)就中央情报局"9·11"事件后的审讯项目撰写了一份谴责报告后,中央情报局局长迈克尔·海登(Michael Hayden)2007年对赫尔格森展开了重大调查,引起了。(中央情报局设法将赫尔格森报告的发布推迟了五年,从而使国会和美国人民对令人震惊的虐待行为一无所知。)

The Trump–Deep State clash is a showdown between a presidency that is far too powerful versus federal agencies that have become fiefdoms that enjoy immunity for almost any and all abuses.Most of the partisans of the Deep State are not championing"government under the law."Instead,this is a dispute over who will be permitted to break the law and dictate the policies to America and the world.Former CIA and NSA boss Hayden proudly proclaimed,"Espionage is not just compatible with American democracy,espionage is essential to American democracy."And how can we know if the Deep State's espionage is actually pro-democracy or subversive of democracy?If they told you,they would have to kill you.The Founding Fathers never intended for covert agencies to trumpet a right to correct voters'verdicts.

特朗普与"深州"的冲突,是一个过于强大的总统与联邦机构之间的摊牌。联邦机构已经变成了享有豁免权的封地,对几乎所有的侵权行为都享有豁免权。大多数"深度政府"的支持者并不是"依法治国"的拥护者
相反,这是一场谁将被允许违反法律并对美国和世界发号施令的争论。前中央情报局和国家安全局局长海登自豪地宣称,"间谍活动不仅与美国民主相容,间谍活动对美国民主至关重要。"我们怎么知道"深层国家"的间谍活动是支持民主还是颠覆民主呢?如果他们告诉你,他们会杀了你。开国元勋们从未打算让秘密机构大肆宣扬纠正选民判决的权利。

Neither the White House nor the CIA,NSA,nor other Deep State agencies should enjoy immunity from the law or deserve blind trust from average Americans or the establishment media.A wayward president(especially a first-term president)can eventually be checked at the ballot box.But who or what can check the Deep State?

无论是白宫、中央情报局、国家安全局,还是其他深层国家机构,都不应该享有法律豁免权,也不应该得到普通美国民众或当权媒体的盲目信任。一个任性的总统(尤其是第一任期的总统)最终可以在投票箱中被选中。但是谁或者什么可以阻止深层状态呢?

Reprinted with permission from the Future of Freedom Foundation.

经自由未来基金会许可转载。

转自:https://eraoflight.com/2020/03/28/the-deep-states-demolition-of-democracy/

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  • 本文由 发表于 2020年3月30日09:43:57
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