柯推荐|三十年战争:第一次现代战争?

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May 23,201714 mins read

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柯推荐|三十年战争:第一次现代战争?

Sébastien Vrancx,The looting of Wommelgem(1625-1630)

塞巴斯蒂安·弗兰克斯,对 Wommelgem 的掠夺(1625-1630)

In 1618,the first in a series of conflicts broke out in Northern Europe,sparking three decades of violence,famine and disease that swept across the continent and decimated its population.What we now know as the Thirty Years'War lasted until 1648.The ensuing intellectual upheaval ushered in the beginnings of a new global order and laid the foundations of the law of war.But the episode has resonated down the centuries in other,less well-known ways.St Vincent de Paul's charitable endeavours marked the birth of humanitarian work as we know it today.And there are many parallels between this early protracted conflict and its present-day equivalents–in Yemen,South Sudan,Nigeria and Somalia,for example–where lasting political solutions have been difficult to achieve.The Thirty Years'War profoundly altered Europe's political landscape and social fabric.And it was this upheaval–not military conflict per se–that took the heaviest human toll.Almost four centuries on,the Thirty Years'War teaches us how protracted conflict can bring about famine and spell disaster for civilians.By Pascal Daudin,ICRC Senior Policy Advisor.

1618年,北欧爆发了一系列冲突中的第一场,引发了长达三十年的暴力、饥荒和疾病,席卷了整个欧洲大陆,大量人口死亡。我们现在所知的三十年战争一直持续到1648年。随之而来的思想动荡开启了一个新的全球秩序,并奠定了战争法的基础。但是这一事件以其他一些鲜为人知的方式引起了几个世纪以来的共鸣。圣文森特··保罗的慈善事业标志着我们今天所知的人道主义工作的诞生。早期的这场旷日持久的冲突与今天的冲突有许多相似之处,例如在也门、南苏丹、尼日利亚和索马里,持久的政治解决办法一直难以实现。三十年战争深刻地改变了欧洲的政治格局和社会结构。正是这种剧变——而不是军事冲突本身——造成了最严重的人员伤亡。差不多四个世纪过去了,三十年战争告诉我们,旷日持久的冲突会给平民带来饥荒和灾难。作者:Pascal Daudin,国际红十字委员会高级政策顾问。

Libera nos,Domine,a bello,a fame,a peste!

解放我们,主啊,美丽,名声,烦恼!

On 23 May 1618,a group of Bohemian Protestants led by Count Jindřich Matyáš Thurn-Valsassina threw two Catholic governors and their secretary out of a top-floor window of Prague Castle.This episode was the unlikely flash point that set off the Thirty Years'War.It sparked the Bohemian Revolt,which engulfed vast swathes of Europe,brought Spanish forces across the Alps to wage a campaign in the Netherlands and,rather improbably,led to the Swedish occupation of Alsace.

1618523日,jind ich matyá Thurn-Valsassina 伯爵领导的一群波希米亚新教徒将两位天主教总督及其秘书从布拉格城堡顶楼的窗户扔了出去。这一事件不太可能成为引发三十年战争的导火索。它引发了席卷欧洲大片地区的波希米亚起义,带领西班牙军队越过阿尔卑斯山脉,在荷兰发动了一场战役,令人难以置信的是,还导致了瑞典占领 Alsace

The 17th century was just as unpredictable,changeable and complex as the time we live in now.We can easily imagine the confusion these events caused in people's minds,and how they overturned the established religious and moral order.The war shook up contemporary thinking,prompting an intellectual upheaval that would ultimately bring about the Enlightenment.

People have long been fascinated by the Thirty Years'War.It is engrained in our collective memory.References to the conflict abound in literary works,from Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen's Simplicius Simplicissimus(1668),to Bertolt Brecht's Mother Courage and Her Children(1939)and Arturo Pérez-Reverte's The Sun Over Breda(1998).And it continues to resonate today amid a fresh wave of religious conflict that can at times seem at odds with conventional geopolitical wisdom.

It would be impossible to cover every twist and turn of the Thirty Years'War here.So instead,we will focus on the key developments that shaped this period in history.

不可能在这里报道三十年战争的每一个转折点。因此,我们将关注历史上塑造这一时期的关键发展。

The war began when Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II attempted to force Roman Catholicism on his subjects.But events gathered pace as a series of military campaigns and alliances dragged much of Europe into full-blown conflict.

战争开始于神圣的罗马皇帝斐迪南二世试图强迫他的臣民接受罗马天主教。但随着一系列的军事行动和联盟将欧洲大部分地区拖入全面冲突,事态发展加快了步伐。

It drew in major European powers of the time–the Holy Roman Empire(ruled by the Habsburg dynasty),the Catholic Church,the House of Savoy,and various German princes,as well as the national armies of Spain,Sweden,Denmark and France–alongside other forces with differing affinities.It ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia–a treaty that,indirectly,laid down the principles of legal equality between States,non-intervention in internal affairs and dispute settlement.And in so doing,it paved the way for the global order that exists today.

它吸引了当时欧洲的主要势力——神圣罗马帝国(由哈布斯堡王朝统治)、天主教堂、萨沃伊家族,以及各种德国王子,还有西班牙、瑞典、丹麦和法国的国家军队——以及其他有着不同亲缘关系的势力。它在1648年以威斯特伐利亚和约结束——该条约间接地规定了国家间法律平等、不干涉内政和解决争端的原则。这样,它为今天存在的全球秩序铺平了道路。

Total war?

全面战争?

The Thirty Years'War was a complex,protracted conflict between many different parties–known in modern parlance as State and non-State actors.In practice,it was a series of separate yet connected international and internal conflicts waged by regular and irregular military forces,partisan groups,private armies and conscripts.Because it had a profound,lasting impact on Europe at the time–drawing in entire sections of contemporary society both on and off the battlefield–it might rightly be described as an example of total war.

三十年战争是许多不同当事方之间的一场复杂、旷日持久的冲突,用现代术语来说就是国家和非国家行为者之间的冲突。实际上,这是一系列独立但又相互关联的国际和国内冲突,由正规和非正规军、党派团体、私人军队和武装份子发动。因为它对当时的欧洲产生了深远而持久的影响——无论是在战场上还是在战场外,它都吸引了当代社会的各个阶层——它可以被正确地描述为全面战争的一个例子。

New fighting forces emerged–versatile mercenary troops and armed marauders who carried out atrocities with utter impunity.And a new breed of war profiteers came to the fore–people like Albrecht von Wallenstein who sought to maintain hostilities for personal gain and looked to turn a profit from one campaign to fund the next.In some ways,war became an industry in its own right.Profiteers plundered resources at every opportunity to sustain their business model,leaving entire regions devastated with no chance of a quick recovery.

新的战斗力量出现了——多才多艺的雇佣军和武装掠夺者,他们肆无忌惮地实施暴行。一种新型的战争投机分子出现了,比如阿尔布雷赫特冯华伦斯坦,他为了个人利益而寻求维持敌对状态,并希望从一次战役中获利,以便为下一次战役提供资金。在某些方面,战争本身就是一种产业。投机分子利用一切机会掠夺资源来维持他们的商业模式,使得整个地区被摧毁,没有任何快速恢复的机会。

The timeline reveals a series of campaigns and temporary truces negotiated by the Catholic Church,interspersed with unusually violent battles and ambitious raids that took troops far from their military bases and deep behind enemy lines.The widespread chaos that ensued–sieges,pitched battles,occupations and brutal repression–had a profound effect across much of Europe,and in Germany in particular.

时间表显示,天主教会谈判达成了一系列战役和临时停战协议,其间夹杂着异常暴力的战斗和野心勃勃的袭击,军队远离军事基地,深入敌后。随之而来的大范围混乱——包围、激战、占领和残酷镇压——在欧洲大部分地区产生了深远的影响,特别是在德国。

Peasants took up arms and revolted against heavy tax burdens,occupying forces and atrocities committed by mercenary troops and vagrant soldiers–with bloody consequences.Jews were persecuted and refugees massacred in big cities such as Frankfurt and Mainz.There were mass witch trials across southern Germany.Relentless military campaigns and troop mobilization saw population displacement on a vast scale.Typhus and plague ravaged soldiers and civilians alike.And all this came against the backdrop of the"Little Ice Age",which blighted agriculture and left food in short supply.

农民拿起武器,反抗沉重的税收负担,反抗占领军和雇佣军和流浪士兵犯下的暴行——带来了血腥的后果。犹太人在法兰克福和美因茨等大城市遭到迫害,难民遭到屠杀。整个德国南部都有大规模的女巫审判。残酷的军事行动和军队动员导致了大规模的人口流离失所。伤寒和瘟疫肆虐着士兵和平民。这一切都是在"小冰河时代"的背景下发生的,"小冰河时代"摧毁了农业,造成粮食短缺。

The cost of violence

暴力的代价

Local authority and church records and isolated witness accounts are the only surviving evidence of how people were affected by the fighting.These sparse records suggest that direct violence against civilians was limited,but that pillaging,economic devastation and disease took a heavy human toll.Indeed,most commentators agree that many more people died from typhus and plague than from musket and cannon fire.

地方当局和教堂的记录以及孤立的目击者的叙述是人们如何受到战争影响的唯一存活的证据。这些稀疏的记录表明,针对平民的直接暴力是有限的,但掠夺、经济破坏和疾病造成了严重的人员伤亡。事实上,大多数评论家都认为死于斑疹伤寒和瘟疫的人数要比死于火枪和大炮的人数多得多。

In 1620,the Holy Roman Empire lost around 200 men on the battlefield at White Mountain on the outskirts of Prague.By comparison,typhus–or"Hungarian fever"as it was known at the time–killed more than 14,000 imperial troops in the same year.Siege warfare also claimed countless lives,with death tolls reaching 100 people a day in Nuremberg and Breda.There were numerous plague outbreaks throughout the conflict,with cases peaking in Lorraine in 1636 during the so-called Swedish plague.As people moved in large numbers,they took disease with them and left decimated populations in their wake.

1620年,神圣罗马帝国在布拉格郊区的白山战场上损失了大约200人。相比之下,当时被称为"匈牙利热"的斑疹伤寒在同一年杀死了14,000多名帝国军人。围城战也夺去了无数生命,纽伦堡和布雷达每天的死亡人数达到100人。在整个冲突期间爆发了大量的瘟疫,在1636年所谓的瑞典瘟疫期间,病例在洛林达到顶峰。当人们大量迁徙时,他们带走了疾病,留下了大量的人口。

Some warlords took to funding their expeditions by bleeding entire populations dry,wreaking havoc on the economy in the process.Moreover,it was the first time that vast armies had been mobilized on this scale in Europe,and keeping so many troops well-fed far from base meant that food was at a premium.

一些军阀为了资助他们的远征,把所有的人口都榨干了,在这个过程中对经济造成了严重的破坏。此外,这是欧洲第一次如此大规模地动员军队,而且让如此多的军队在远离基地的地方得到充足的食物意味着食物是非常昂贵的。

Princes and noblemen footed the bill for troop recruitment.But fighting forces imposed local taxes,stripped assets and plundered defenceless communities to fund their own upkeep.Some armies ballooned in size,bringing in scores of civilians–chiefly family members and servants–to provide logistics support.In some cases,there were as many as four or five civilians for every combatant.

王子和贵族们为征兵买单。但是战斗部队征收当地税收,掠夺资产,掠夺手无寸铁的社区来维持他们自己的生活。一些军队的规模急剧膨胀,带来了大量的平民——主要是家庭成员和仆人——来提供后勤支持。在某些情况下,每个战斗人员有四到五个平民。

Regulating the art of war

规范战争艺术

The Thirty Years'War saw some of the most violent and bloodiest episodes in history.But it was more than just a frenzy of wanton atrocities.From the chaos of the battlefield emerged new rules–some driven by the very pragmatic need to conserve energy,others by religious dictate.

三十年战争见证了历史上一些最暴力和最血腥的事件。但这不仅仅是一场肆无忌惮的暴行。从战场的混乱中出现了新的规则——有些是出于节约能源的务实需要,有些则是出于宗教规定。

The human toll

人员伤亡

The Thirty Years'War is thought to have claimed between 4 and 12 million lives.Around 450,000 people died in combat.Disease and famine took the lion's share of the death toll.Estimates suggest that 20%of Europe's people perished,with some areas seeing their population fall by as much as 60%.

三十年的战争被认为夺去了400万到1200万人的生命。大约有45万人在战斗中丧生。疾病和饥荒是死亡人数中最大的一部分。据估计,欧洲20%的人口死亡,一些地区的人口下降了60%

These figures are remarkably high,even by 17th century standards.By comparison,the First World War–including the post-armistice outbreak of Spanish Flu–claimed 5%of Europe's population.The only comparable example was Soviet losses during the Second World War,which amounted to 12%of the USSR's population.The Thirty Years'War took an immense human toll,with significant,long-lasting impacts on marriage and birth rates.

即使按照17世纪的标准,这些数字也相当高。相比之下,第一次世界大战——包括停战后爆发的西班牙流感——夺走了欧洲5%的人口。唯一可比的例子是苏联在第二次世界大战中的损失,达到苏联人口的12%。三十年战争造成了巨大的人员伤亡,对婚姻和出生率产生了重大而持久的影响。

Historical sources suggest,for example,that the Swedish army alone destroyed 2,200 castles,18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany,wiping one-third of the country's towns from the map.The 1631 Sack of Magdeburg was an unusually brutal episode.It claimed 24,000 lives–the majority burned alive in what remained of their homes.The scale of the atrocities remains a matter of some debate and we cannot say with certainty that systematic massacres took place.But the evidence shows how fighting forces used terror to repress civilians and points to pillage as common practice.

例如,历史资料显示,仅瑞典军队就摧毁了德国的2200座城堡、18000个村庄和1500个城镇,将该国三分之一的城镇从地图上抹去。1631年的马格德堡战役是一个异乎寻常的残酷事件。它夺去了24000人的生命——大多数人在他们仅存的家园中被活活烧死。暴行的规模仍然是一个有争议的问题,我们不能确定是否发生了系统性的屠杀。但是有证据表明,战斗部队是如何利用恐怖镇压平民的,并将掠夺作为一种常见的做法。

柯推荐|三十年战争:第一次现代战争?

Jacques Callot,The Great Miseries of War:The Hanging(1633)

《战争的巨大痛苦:绞刑》(1633)

Communities agreed to pay potential invaders a Brandschatzung(fire tax)or other levy as protection money against destruction and pillage.Meanwhile,peasants sought refuge in towns and cities because it had become too risky to continue farming their land.In 1634,for example,8,000 of the 15,000 people living in Ulm were refugees–similar,in relative terms,to the situation in Lebanon today.The price of wheat jumped six-fold in some places.By around 1648,one-third of Europe's farmland had been abandoned or left fallow.

社区同意向潜在的侵略者支付"火税"(Brandschatzung)或其他税收,作为防止破坏和掠夺的保护费。与此同时,农民在城镇寻求避难,因为继续耕种他们的土地已经变得太危险了。例如,在1634年,生活在乌尔姆的15000人中有8000人是难民——相对而言,与今天黎巴嫩的情况类似。有些地方的小麦价格上涨了6倍。到1648年左右,欧洲三分之一的农田被遗弃或闲置。

What can we learn from the Thirty Years'War?

我们能从三十年战争中学到什么?

Historians broadly agree about what the Thirty Years'War teaches us today.Some claim that it was the first example of a total war,citing its far-reaching,profound and long-lasting effects on contemporary society.To all intents and purposes it was a modern war–a mix of low-intensity conflicts and conventional battles that bore little resemblance to medieval chivalry or the 18th-century"Lace Wars".

历史学家们对三十年战争给我们今天带来的教训有着广泛的共识。一些人声称,这是全面战争的第一个例子,并指出它对当代社会产生了深远、深远和持久的影响。实际上,这是一场现代战争——低强度冲突和常规战斗的混合体,与中世纪的骑士精神或18世纪的"蕾丝战争"几乎没有相似之处。

Some observers draw political parallels between the 17th-century wars of religion and other present-day conflicts around the world.The view,held in some quarters at least,that Westphalian sovereignty is disintegrating is fuelling creative analogies.A few years ago,for example,Zbigniew Brzezinski called the Middle East conflict a"thirty years'war".And when a young Tunisian street vendor set himself on fire in 2011,Richard Haas drew parallels with the Defenestration of Prague.

一些观察人士将17世纪的宗教战争与当今世界其它冲突进行了政治比较。至少在某些方面,威斯特伐利亚主权正在瓦解的观点正在推动创造性的类比。例如,几年前,兹比格涅夫布热津斯基称中东冲突为"三十年战争"2011年,当一个年轻的突尼斯街头小贩自焚时,理查德·哈斯(Richard Haas)把自己和布拉格爆炸案相提并论。

Some economists like Michael T.Klare claim that we could well see a return to the instability–and political and military conflict–of the mid-17th century as resources become scarcer,climate change takes its toll and national borders are redrawn.And strategists hold out hope that a Westphalia-style agreement could bring about lasting peace in some parts of the world.

一些经济学家如迈克尔·t·克莱尔(Michael t.Klare)声称,随着资源变得越来越稀缺,气候变化造成损失,国家边界被重新划分,我们很可能会看到17世纪中叶的不稳定局面——以及政治和军事冲突——卷土重来。战略家们希望一个威斯特伐利亚式的协议能够在世界的某些地区带来持久的和平。

Although this is an appealing political analogy,we live in a different world today.The global order,and the way the world is governed,have changed.It is always dangerous to compare two episodes so far apart in time.Similarity is no guarantee of comparability.Those who look to the past to explain modern-day events are routinely accused of having a hidden political agenda–of making things fit to suit their message.

尽管这是一个有吸引力的政治类比,但我们今天生活在一个不同的世界。全球秩序和治理世界的方式已经改变。在时间上比较两个截然不同的事件总是很危险的。相似性并不能保证可比性。那些借鉴过去来解释现代事件的人,经常被指责有一个隐藏的政治议程——让事情符合他们的信息。

Hybrid warfare's devastating toll

混合战争的毁灭性代价

Perhaps the most important lesson we can learn from the Thirty Years'War lies elsewhere–in its resonance with present-day conflicts where lasting political solutions are found wanting.Documentary sources dating back more than 300 years reveal how far-reaching and long-lasting violence profoundly affected the social and political system of the day.And we cannot help but draw parallels with modern conflicts–in Afghanistan,the Democratic Republic of the Congo,Sudan and Somalia.

也许我们能够从三十年战争中学到的最重要的经验教训在于其他方面——在于它与当今冲突的共鸣,在这些冲突中,持久的政治解决方案被认为是不够的。可以追溯到300多年前的纪录片资料揭示了当时深远而持久的暴力是如何深刻地影响了当时的社会和政治制度。我们不得不将现代冲突与阿富汗、刚果民主共和国、苏丹和索马里的冲突相提并论。

In his treatise On War,Carl von Clausewitz argued for localized,quick,decisive battles to redress the balance of power.Yet the Thirty Years'War is perhaps one of the earliest recorded examples of a protracted conflict–one where the conventional battle-and-armistice model does not apply.And in that sense,it bears many similarities with siege warfare in places such as Iraq and Syria,where both sides attempt to wear down the other but neither has the resources to win a decisive victory–with long-lasting consequences for civilians and their environment.

在他的战争论文中,卡尔冯克劳塞维茨主张局部化,快速,决定性的战斗,以纠正权力的平衡。然而,"三十年战争"可能是有记载以来最早的长期冲突的例子之一——在这场冲突中,常规的战争和停战模式并不适用。从这个意义上讲,它与伊拉克和叙利亚等地的围攻战有许多相似之处。在这些地方,双方都试图削弱对方,但都没有获得决定性胜利的资源——对平民及其环境造成长期的后果。

Economist Quintin Outram has examined the relationship between violence,hunger,death and disease during the Thirty Years'War,arguing that the enormous humanitarian toll cannot be attributed to armed conflict or economic hardship alone.

经济学家昆廷·乌特拉姆研究了三十年战争期间暴力、饥饿、死亡和疾病之间的关系,认为巨大的人道主义伤亡不能仅仅归因于武装冲突或经济困难。

The military battles were the catalyst for what happened during the Thirty Years'War,but they were not the leading cause of death.The violence profoundly altered Europe's political landscape and social fabric,and these changes were what spelled disaster on a massive scale.This process did not happen quickly.But once the violence had become endemic and self-perpetuating,change was irresistible.By contrast,the English Civil War of 1642–1651 did not have an appreciable demographic impact because the violence never reached a level that triggered economic collapse and mass displacement.

军事战争是三十年战争的催化剂,但它们并不是死亡的主要原因。暴力事件深刻地改变了欧洲的政治格局和社会结构,这些变化造成了大规模的灾难。这个过程并没有很快发生。但是,一旦暴力成为地方性的,自我延续的,变化是不可抗拒的。相比之下,1642年至1651年的英国内战并没有对人口产生明显的影响,因为暴力从未达到引发经济崩溃和大规模流离失所的程度。

Distinguishing between concomitance,correlation and causality is an ongoing struggle for conflict theorists.Experts still disagree,for example,whether there is a causal link between malnutrition and the spread of infectious and communicable diseases.But we know for certain that widespread famine often comes as an indirect–yet no less real–consequence of warfare.A 2010 study on the war in Darfur revealed that,beyond its direct effects,armed conflict was driving other phenomena(including population displacement and restrictions on movement).The study also found that these phenomena were harming the economy,making it harder for people to sell their goods,and severely disrupting the supply chain,leaving an already-weakened local system unable to absorb future climate shocks or other major events.

对于冲突理论家来说,区分伴随、相关和因果关系是一个持续的斗争。例如,专家们仍然不同意营养不良和传染病传播之间是否存在因果关系。但我们确切地知道,大范围的饥荒往往是战争的间接后果,但也是真实的后果。2010年关于达尔富尔战争的一项研究表明,除了其直接影响之外,武装冲突还在推动其他现象(包括人口流离失所和限制行动)。该研究还发现,这些现象正在损害经济,使人们更难出售他们的商品,并严重扰乱供应链,使本已脆弱的地方系统无法吸收未来的气候冲击或其他重大事件。

In his book on the 1983–1985 famine in Sudan,Alex de Waal observed how war and violence leave people unable to fight back against worsening economic conditions.A snowball effect ensues,whereby famine and food shortages cause the social order to collapse and people lose faith in the ability of institutions–both formal and informal–to protect them.Armed violence thus weakens people's resilience,as Mark Duffield showed when he explained how hybrid conflict gives rise to warlordism and economic predation,leaving scant hope for development.

亚历克斯·德瓦尔在他关于1983-1985年苏丹饥荒的书中指出,战争和暴力使人们无法对日益恶化的经济状况进行反击。随之而来的是滚雪球效应,饥荒和粮食短缺导致社会秩序崩溃,人们对正式和非正式机构保护他们的能力失去信心。因此,武装暴力削弱了人们的适应能力,正如马克·达菲尔德(Mark Duffield)在解释混合冲突如何导致军阀主义和经济掠夺时所表明的那样,给发展留下了很少的希望。

St Vincent de Paul:the birth of humanitarian work?

圣文森特·德保罗:人道主义工作的诞生?

In 1640,Louis XIII ordered Vincent de Paul,later canonized,to send a dozen missionaries to the duchies of Bar and Lorraine to help people suffering at the hands of the invading Swedish and occupying French forces.Contemporary records recall,in harrowing detail,what life was like–people were starving in huge numbers and the Church even received reports of cannibalism.

1640年,路易十三命令后来被封为圣徒的文森特··保罗,派遣十几名传教士前往巴尔和洛林公国,帮助那些在入侵的瑞典和占领的法国军队手中受苦的人们。当时的记录以令人痛心的细节回忆起当时的生活——人们大量挨饿,教会甚至收到了食人的报告。

Humanitarian work in protracted conflicts

旷日持久的冲突中的人道主义工作

The Thirty Years'War serves as a metaphor for the work that humanitarian organizations do in conflicts of all shapes and sizes.We have to address urgent needs.At the same time,we have to protect health and education systems,make sure people have a reliable supply of food,and keep the water running and the lights on.

三十年战争是人道主义组织在各种形式和规模的冲突中所做工作的隐喻。我们必须解决紧迫的需求。与此同时,我们必须保护卫生和教育系统,确保人们有可靠的食物供应,保持供水和照明。

Three centuries ago,people were vulnerable in many interconnected ways.The same remains true today.As humanitarians,it is our job to think about the short and the long term–to put out fires and to build fire-resistant homes.We must view conflicts not as separate events,but rather as processes that erode the very heart of our society.Every time a school is destroyed or closed down,children are deprived of an education and upbringing,leaving them at risk of joining armed groups and being unable to help rebuild their country.In this sense,war puts their future in jeopardy.

三个世纪以前,人们在许多相互关联的方面都很脆弱。同样的情况在今天依然存在。作为人道主义者,我们的工作是考虑短期和长期的问题——扑灭火灾,建造防火的房屋。我们不应该把冲突看作是独立的事件,而应该把它看作是侵蚀我们社会核心的过程。每当一所学校被摧毁或关闭,儿童就被剥夺教育和抚养权,使他们面临加入武装团体和无法帮助重建国家的风险。从这个意义上说,战争使他们的未来处于危险之中。

At the ICRC,we have long held this holistic view of conflict.We see emergency response and development as two sides of the same coin.We repair infrastructure,keep services running,deliver lasting improvements,nurture resilience and keep people out of poverty–all with the aim of building local capacities.We help keep the social order intact and,in so doing,avert potentially devastating and long-lasting consequences for the people we work with.Our aim,in everything we do,is to avoid the so-called perfect storm.

在红十字委员会,我们长期以来一直对冲突持有这种全面的看法。我们把应急反应和发展看作是同一枚硬币的两面。我们修复基础设施,保持服务运行,提供持久的改善,培养适应能力,让人们摆脱贫困——所有这些都是为了建设当地的能力。我们帮助保持社会秩序的完整性,通过这样做,我们避免了潜在的破坏性和长期的后果,我们的工作人员。我们的目标,在我们所做的每件事情上,都是为了避免所谓的完美风暴。

The Peace of Westphalia was a feat of political prowess.It brought the Thirty Years'War to a close.And it established a new nation-state system whose principles survive to this day.But it was also the product of a worn-out,emaciated Europe.Perhaps a more fitting name would be the Peace of Exhaustion.

威斯特伐利亚和约是政治实力的壮举。它结束了三十年的战争。它建立了一个新的民族国家体系,其原则一直延续至今。但它也是一个破旧的,消瘦的欧洲的产物。也许更合适的名字应该是"疲惫的和平"

***

Pascal Daudin is currently Senior Policy Advisor at the International Committee of the Red Cross(ICRC)in the Policy and Humanitarian Diplomacy Division.After a short career as free-lance journalist,he joined the ICRC in 1986 and has occupied various positions of line manager,protection expert,HR policies as well as humanitarian action specialist.During this term with the organization he was deployed in major conflict situations such as Pakistan,Afghanistan,Lebanon,Iraq,Iran,Central Asia,Caucasus,Saudi Arabia and the Balkans.The ideas expressed in this blog post are the author's own.

Pascal Daudin 目前是政策和人道主义外交司红十字国际委员会(红十字委员会)的高级政策顾问。在短暂的自由撰稿记者生涯之后,他于1986年加入红十字委员会,担任过各种职务,包括直线经理、保护专家、人力资源政策以及人道主义行动专家。在本组织任职期间,他曾被部署在巴基斯坦、阿富汗、黎巴嫩、伊拉克、伊朗、中亚、高加索、沙特阿拉伯和巴尔干等重大冲突局势中。这篇博客文章所表达的观点是作者自己的。

来源:

https://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2017/05/23/thirty-years-war-first-modern-war/

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  • 本文由 发表于 2021年6月18日14:46:23
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