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Banco Ambrosiano  Scandal
Suicide Corrected as Murder
Prince Bernhard vetoed Pope John Paul I
伯恩哈德王子否决了教皇约翰 · 保罗一世
House of Cards
Scandalised Money Laundering

Banco Ambrosiano Scandal


The apparent suicide in June, 1982 of an Italian financier known as ”God’s banker,” who was found hanged beneath London’s Blackfriars Bridge, has added to the mystery of a major Italian financial scandal in which the Vatican appears heavily involved.


谁杀了上帝的银行家?|最后的警钟Five days after he vanished, his secretary jumped to her death from a window of the Milan bank. Mr. Calvi 61 years old was found in London hanging from a rope under Blackfriars Bridge on June 18, 1982.


He had joined Milan’s Banco Ambrosiano as a clerk, worked his way up to become its president and, along the way, through a series of spectacular deals, transformed what had been a modest regional bank into a major financial power, with assets of $18.7 billion in 1981.

他加入米兰安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)时是一名职员,后来一路晋升成为该行行长。在这个过程中,他通过一系列引人注目的交易,将一家不起眼的地区性银行变成了一个主要的金融大国,1981年,该行的资产达到187亿美元。

”The Ambrosiano affair makes everyone wonder about the Vatican’s finances, but it really illustrates the fragility of the international banking system that we are all trying to preserve,” said Guido Carli, a former governor of the Bank of Italy and now a prominent industrialist.

“安布罗西亚诺事件让所有人都对梵蒂冈的财政状况感到怀疑,但它确实说明了国际银行体系的脆弱性,而我们都在努力维护这种脆弱性,”意大利央行(Bank of Italy)前行长、现知名实业家吉多•卡利(Guido Carli)表示。

As usual with such scandals in Italy, there are also unverifiable reports of the involvement of organised crime figures and even a recently discovered secret Masonic lodge opposed to the government that are somehow involved.


There are also reports that Banco Ambrosiano may have been a target of the British secret service, which is said to suspect it of financing Argentine arms purchases during the war over the Falkland Islands.

还有报道称,安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)可能已成为英国情报机构的目标,据说该机构怀疑安布罗西亚诺银行在阿根廷福克兰群岛战争期间为阿根廷军火采购提供资金。

The Bank of Italy first became suspicious about Banco Ambrosiano in 1978 during a general crackdown on bank fraud, but immediately ran into a heavy political opposition.

1978年,意大利央行(Bank of Italy)在全面打击银行欺诈行为期间,首次对安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)产生了怀疑,但随即遭遇了强烈的政治反对。

This Vatican bank is officially known as the Institute of Religious Relations, from 1971 to 1989 its President was Archbishop Paul Marcinkus from Cicero, Illinois. Before that, he worked as a bodyguard for Pope Paul VI. However, he will be remembered for a scandal that broke out in 1982.

这家梵蒂冈银行的正式名称是宗教关系研究所,1971年至1989年其总裁是来自伊利诺伊州西塞罗的大主教保罗 · 马尔钦库斯。在那之前,他是教皇保罗六世的保镖。然而,他将因1982年爆发的一起丑闻而被人们铭记。

 Suicide Corrected as Murder


The scandal began with the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano, one of Italy’s largest private banks, with a debt of $1.4 billion. Soon after, Roberto Calvi, the bank’s managing director and friend of Marcinkus, was found dead hanging under a bridge over the river Thames in London, in England.

这起丑闻始于意大利最大的私人银行之一安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)的破产,该银行负债14亿欧元。不久之后,世行董事总经理、马尔钦库斯的朋友罗伯托•卡尔维(Roberto Calvi)被发现死在英国伦敦泰晤士河上的一座桥下。

The location of Blackfriars bridge was seen as indicating a link to P2 because members of the illegal group referred to themselves as ‘frati neri’, Italian for ‘black friars’.

黑衣修士桥的位置被认为与 p2有关,因为这个非法组织的成员称自己为“ frati neri”,意大利语的意思是“黑人修道士”。

T谁杀了上帝的银行家?|最后的警钟he death of Calvi, the bank’s chairman and a P2 member, was initially deemed to have been a suicide. But subsequent investigations pointed to it having been a murder which Italian prosecutors believe was the work of the Sicilian Mafia.

银行主席兼 P2成员卡尔维的死亡最初被认为是自杀。但随后的调查指出,这是一起意大利检察官认为是西西里黑手党所为的谋杀案。

The organised crime syndicate had used Ambrosiano to recycle funds, some of which were moved out of Italy via the Vatican bank. No-one was ever convicted for carrying out or commissioning Calvi ‘s murder.


Five people, including mafia boss Masonic grand master Licio Gelli were tried in connection with his murder, but were all acquitted. It is best known internationally for having been at the heart of a murder mystery involving both the Mafia and the Vatican that centred on the death of “God’s banker”!

五个人,包括黑手党老大共济会大师 Licio Gelli 因涉嫌谋杀而受审,但都被无罪释放。这是国际上最著名的,因为它是一个涉及黑手党和梵蒂冈的谋杀谜团的核心,这个谜团的中心是“上帝的银行家”的死亡!

It appears that the Vatican, through the Vatican Bank, is the main shareholder of Banco Ambrosiano and that they have channelled a billion dollars from the bank to 10 subsidiaries. Several rumours surrounding the scandal were, that other shareholders at the bank were involved in this organised crime and some were even members of the secret Masonic lodge-P2.

看来梵蒂冈通过梵蒂冈银行是安布罗西亚诺银行的主要股东,他们已经从该银行向10家子公司输送了10亿美元。围绕这一丑闻的几个传言是,该银行的其他股东参与了这一有组织的犯罪活动,其中一些甚至是共济会秘密分会 P2的成员。

When Italian investigators tried to interview Marcinkus about the scandal, he was uncooperative. He refused to leave the Vatican and even refused to answer questions, referring to his diplomatic immunity.


Marcinkus was eventually indicted, but he never went to trial because the charges against him were dismissed. He remained in charge of the Vatican bank for seven years.


Prince Bernhard vetoed Pope John Paul I

伯恩哈德王子否决了教皇约翰 · 保罗一世

谁杀了上帝的银行家?|最后的警钟The scandal even gave rise to some conspiracy theories. The most famous was used in the plot of Godfather Part III, as Pope John Paul I was assassinated by the mafia on orders in August 1978. John Paul I had been chosen as Pope in 1978, but Prince Bernhard the prince of the Netherlands vetoed it. He was found dead in bed after only 33 days in office. The official cause of death was a heart attack, but no autopsy was performed. According to the conspiracy theory, he was killed because he wanted to end the relationship between the church and the private bank.

这一丑闻甚至引发了一些阴谋论。其中最著名的是在《教父》第三部中的情节,1978年8月,教皇约翰 · 保罗一世被黑手党下令暗杀。约翰 · 保罗一世在1978年被选为教皇,但是被荷兰王子伯恩哈德亲王否决了。他上任仅33天就被发现死在床上。官方的死因是心脏病发作,但没有进行尸检。根据阴谋论,他被杀是因为他想结束教会和私人银行的关系。

According to senior officials investigating the scandal who do not wish to be identified, the Banco Ambrosiano affair centres on the close but ambiguous relationship between Mr. Calvi and Archbishop Paul C. Marcinkus, a 60-year-old native of Cicero, Ill., who for the last 10 years has run the Vatican’s free-wheeling but extremely secretive bank. The bank’s formal name is Instituto per le Opere de Religione, the Institute for Religious Works, and it is commonly referred to as I.O.R.

据不愿透露姓名的负责调查丑闻的高级官员透露,安布罗西亚诺银行事件的中心是卡尔维先生和大主教保罗 · C · 马尔钦库斯(Paul c。 Marcinkus)之间亲密但模棱两可的关系。马尔钦库斯现年60岁,出生于 Ill. 的西塞罗,过去10年来一直管理着梵蒂冈这家自由放任但极其隐秘的银行。银行的正式名称是宗教作品研究所,宗教作品研究所,通常被称为 I.O.R。

Archbishop Marcinkus, a former chief of papal security, has been a controversial figure in financial circles because, as head of the Vatican bank, he was responsible for the Vatican’s losing a reported $30 million in the collapse in 1974 of the business empire of Michele Sindona, the Sicilian financier.

曾任教皇安全事务负责人的马尔钦库斯大主教在金融界一直是一个有争议的人物,因为作为梵蒂冈银行的负责人,他要对梵蒂冈在1974年西西里金融家米歇尔 · 辛多纳(Michele Sindona)的商业帝国崩溃中损失3000万美元的事件负责

During 1980 and 1981, investigating officials say, the late Mr. Calvi mounted an extensive lending program to the Peruvian, Nicaraguan and Nassau subsidiaries of the Banco Ambrosiano group, using funds borrowed in the Eurodollar market that eventually totalled some $1.2 billion to $1.4 billion.


Most of this money was then lent to a series of Panamanian companies with names such as Bellatrix Inc., Manic Inc. and Astrolfine Inc., most of which are thought to have no more than mail addresses. The loans were granted roughly evenly by Banco Ambrosiano in Milan and by its Luxembourg subsidiary, Banco Ambrosiano Holdings.

这些资金的大部分被借给了一系列巴拿马公司,如 Bellatrix Inc. 、 Manic Inc. 和 Astrofine Inc. ,其中大部分被认为只有邮箱地址。米兰的安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)和其卢森堡子公司安布罗西亚诺控股公司(Banco Ambrosiano Holdings)发放的贷款大致相当。

谁杀了上帝的银行家?|最后的警钟But Mr. Calvi lent these funds, investigators say, only after receiving what bankers call ”letters of comfort” from the Vatican bank. These letters, though vaguely worded, implied that the Vatican had an interest in the companies and was aware of their borrowing plans. Although such letters do not constitute a legal guarantee that the signatory will repay the loans, they are often issued to reassure lenders that a borrowing company has reputable backing.


But the Vatican bank also demanded and received what investigators call a ”counter letter” signed by Mr. Calvi and absolving it from all legal and financial responsibility for the loans to the Panamanian companies.


Investigating officials believe the Vatican did have an interest in the Panamanian companies and probably controlled a number of them. But they are convinced that Mr. Calvi was also part owner and effective manager of most of the companies and used the money they borrowed to buy shares in Banco Ambrosiano and probably in other companies as well.


By now, one senior official involved in the investigation estimates, the Panamanian companies own around 20 percent of Banco Ambrosiano.

据一位参与调查的高级官员估计,到目前为止,这两家巴拿马公司拥有安布罗西亚诺银行约20% 的股份。

House of Cards


As interest rates rose and the dollar strengthened, investigators found it likely that it became increasingly difficult for Mr Calvi to pay his loans in dollars with the dividends from his shares, which were often paid out in weak Italian lira. To remain solvent, he was forced to borrow more.


”It was a house of cards that was bound to fall down,”


one official said.


谁杀了上帝的银行家?|最后的警钟There is speculation that the Archbishop may have agreed to the deal to help out an old colleague and financial adviser since Banco Ambrosiano is regarded as one of Italy’s ”Catholic” banks with longstanding links to the Vatican. He may also have wished to protect the Vatican’s own stake in Banco Ambrosiano, which is assumed to be far more than the 1.8 percent shown by the latest official figures.

有人猜测,大主教可能已同意这笔交易,以帮助一位老同事和财务顾问,因为安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)被视为意大利的“天主教”银行之一,与梵蒂冈有着长期的联系。他可能还希望保护梵蒂冈自己在安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)的股份,这一比例被认为远远高于最新官方数据显示的1.8% 。

In the view of the Italian Treasury Minister, Nino Andreatta, and of Mr. Campi, the central bank’s governor, the Vatican acted improperly in issuing letters of comfort to Banco Ambrosiano at the same time as it asked the bank to absolve it from any responsibility for the Panamian companies. They believe it must therefore bear at least a moral responsibility for any losses incurred, according to senior officials.

意大利财政部长尼诺 · 安德烈亚塔(Nino Andreatta)和中央银行行长坎皮先生认为,梵蒂冈在向安布罗西亚诺银行(Banco Ambrosiano)发出慰问信的同时,要求该银行免除其对巴拿马公司的任何责任,这种做法是不正当的。高级官员们表示,他们认为,因此,该公司必须至少对所遭受的任何损失承担道义责任。

Toward the end of his life, Mr. Calvi is said to have become increasingly involved with suspected underworld figures as his needs for ready cash increased. There are also rumours that he lent Peru $200 million to buy Exocet missiles for the Argentine forces during the Falkland war and thus became a target for the British secret service.


In light of the rumours, officials at the normally staid Bank of Italy and Finance Ministry expressed amazement at the finding by a London coroner that Mr. Calvi did indeed commit suicide by hanging himself under the bridge. The common reaction was:


”Why bother to go to London to do that?”


Scandalised Money Laundering


Paolo Cipriani, director of the bank, and his deputy Marco Tullio have resigned after the arrest by Italian tax police of a Vatican monsignor who used to work as a senior account manager in the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (APSA), which manages Vatican real estate holdings. The monsignor, Nunzio Scarano, is being questioned in jail over allegations of money laundering, corruption and fraud.

在意大利税务警察逮捕了一名梵蒂冈主教后,该银行行长保罗•奇普里亚尼(Paolo Cipriani)及其副手马可•图里奥(Marco Tullio)辞职。图里奥曾在管理梵蒂冈房地产资产的使徒遗产管理局(APSA)担任高级客户经理。主教努齐奥 · 斯卡拉诺因涉嫌洗钱、腐败和欺诈正在狱中接受审讯。

Pope Francis is scandalised and angry at the goings on behind the scenes at the IOR. He has decided to begin his planned clean-up of the Roman Curia, the central government of the Church, with a complete shakeup at the IOR.


Vatican security officers have been instructed to freeze any attempt to meddle with IOR documents, while an internal commission of inquiry with wide powers prepares a secret report on the current financial shenanigans, for the eyes of Pope Francis only.

梵蒂冈安全官员已接到指示,要求他们冻结任何干预 IOR 文件的企图,同时一个权力广泛的内部调查委员会准备了一份关于当前金融骗局的秘密报告,仅供教皇方济各(Pope Francis)参考。

The Vatican Bank has a damaged image at a time when the Pope is urging his flock to turn their attention to the plight of the world’s poor. There is speculation that one of Pope Francis’ options could be to dissolve the IOR altogether and transfer all Vatican banking to a reliable commercial bank.

梵蒂冈银行在教皇敦促其信众将注意力转向世界穷人的困境之际,其形象受到了损害。有人猜测,教皇方济各的选择之一可能是完全解散 IOR,并将所有梵蒂冈银行业务转移到一家可靠的商业银行。

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谁杀了上帝的银行家?|最后的警钟Watch the documentary God’s Banker about worldwide money laundering, The Vatican bank, Masonic secret service and the Italian mafia.

观看纪录片《上帝的银行家》 ,内容涉及世界各地的洗钱、梵蒂冈银行、共济会特勤局和意大利黑手党。



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