神经科学了解佛教多年来所知道的:正念

2020年9月21日17:49:19神经科学了解佛教多年来所知道的:正念已关闭评论 605 15024字阅读50分4秒
摘要

你多久练习一次正念?你在想什么?你多久使用你的意识和正念技巧来帮助你的整体健康和幸福?为什么这些东西一度被认为是伪科学

事实:多年来,神经科学和精神科学一直互为补充,我们发现其中一个领域与正念有关。这被定义为一种注意力训练,可以有益于健康和一般的幸福感。

反思:你多久练习一次正念?你在想什么?你多久使用你的意识和正念技巧来帮助你的整体健康和幸福?为什么这些东西一度被认为是伪科学

Mindfulness is defined as an attention training which can benefit health and general well-being.There is a lot scientific research confirming it.In this article we will present the other type of attention training called Open Focus.We believe,combining these two approaches may help to understand attention training better and to experience its benefits faster.

正念被定义为一种注意力训练,可以有益于健康和总体幸福感。有很多科学研究证实了这一点。在本文中,我们将介绍另一种类型的注意力训练,称为开放焦点。我们相信,将这两种方法结合起来可能有助于更好地理解注意力训练,并更快地体验它的好处。

What Is Mindfulness?

什么是正念?

In its most basic form,Mindfulness means to pay attention to what's happening,on purpose,in the present moment,and to do so without judgement.Originally from Buddhist roots,it was introduced into the West by Dr.Jon Kabat-Zin and the University of Massachusetts.Since its appearance in the West around twenty years ago,many people have participated in the Mindfulness based stress reduction course and similar programs.Research shows that participants may experience profound benefits such as reduced stress,a greater sense of well-being,increased clarity and focus,and improved sleeping patterns.

在最基本的形式中,正念意味着有意识地关注当下正在发生的事情,并且不带任何判断。它起源于佛教,由乔恩·卡巴津博士和马萨诸塞大学介绍到西方。自从20年前它在西方出现以来,许多人参加了正念减压课程和类似的项目。研究表明,参与者可以体验到深远的好处,如减少压力,更好的幸福感,提高清晰度和注意力,以及改善睡眠模式。

According to Dr.Kabat-Zin,by paying attention in a certain way,we can switch off our so-called autopilot mode,in which we often go through life unaware of what's happening within and around us.Living on autopilot not only means that we miss out on a lot of the richness of life,but we are also more likely to be stressed.Stress and autopilot are linked because when we are on autopilot,we are much more likely to act out unhelpful or even damaging patterns of behaviour.In other words,we react instead of respond to challenging experiences in our life.Mindfulness helps us to become aware of these habitual patterns and gives us a choice to change how we relate to challenging experiences.It's not about taking stress away or hoping to live a life without any stress,but rather fundamentally changing how we relate to the things we experience.

根据卡巴特-津博士的说法,通过以某种方式集中注意力,我们可以关闭我们所谓的自动驾驶模式,在这种模式下,我们经常在生活中不知道自己内心和周围发生了什么。过着自动驾驶的生活不仅意味着我们错过了许多丰富多彩的生活,而且我们也更有可能感到压力。压力和自动驾驶之间是有联系的,因为当我们处于自动驾驶状态时,我们更有可能表现出没有帮助甚至有害的行为模式。换句话说,我们对生活中具有挑战性的经历做出反应而不是回应。正念可以帮助我们意识到这些习惯模式,并且给我们一个选择去改变我们与挑战性经历的关系。这并不是要带走压力或者希望过一种没有压力的生活,而是从根本上改变我们与我们所经历的事物的关系。

On the other hand,many of us spend much of our time living in our heads.We live in a kind of virtual reality consisting of thoughts and inner dialogue,and thoughts tend to relate either to the past or to the future.Mindfulness helps us to learn how to return to the present and to what's actually happening rather than our perceptions of what's happening,which are often inaccurate.We practice it by cultivating greater somatic awareness—that is,awareness of the body,because the body is always in the present moment.

另一方面,我们中的许多人大部分时间都生活在自己的头脑中。我们生活在一种由思想和内心对话组成的虚拟现实中,思想往往与过去或未来有关。正念可以帮助我们学会如何回到当下和实际发生的事情,而不是我们对正在发生的事情的感知,这些感知往往是不准确的。我们通过培养更强的躯体意识来练习,也就是说,对身体的意识,因为身体总是活在当下。

Ultimately,the more we practice Mindfulness and observe the changing nature of experience,the more we may begin to sense that what we previously thought of as being tangible and solid,such as our sense of self,is actually quite transitory and ephemeral.We may begin to understand what lies beyond objects arising in awareness such as sensations,thoughts,and emotions.We may begin to experience awareness itself.This is an extremely significant moment in practice and in life,when we start to experience ourselves as something greater than what we observe and our sense of being the observer.

最终,我们越是练习正念并观察经验的变化本质,我们就越能感觉到我们以前认为是有形和可靠的东西,比如我们的自我意识,实际上是非常短暂和转瞬即逝的。我们可能开始理解超越意识中产生的物体之外的东西,比如感觉、思想和情感。我们可能开始体验觉知本身。这是一个在实践和生活中极其重要的时刻,当我们开始把自己当作比我们所观察的和我们作为观察者的感觉更伟大的事物来体验。

In Mindfulness,attention generaly focuses on one object(such as the breath,sensations in the body,thoughts,or emotions),exploring it with a sense of curiosity and interest.Another way Mindfulness can be practiced is through Open Monitoring or Open Awareness,where no particular object of experience is selected and there is an openness to all that is unfolding within awareness.Here too,however,as various objects pass through awareness,attention is often paid to each object in a narrowly focused wa

在正念中,注意力一般集中在一个物体上(如呼吸、身体的感觉、思想或情绪),带着好奇和兴趣探索它。另一种练习正念的方法是通过开放式监控或开放式觉知,在那里没有特定的经验对象被选中,对于所有在觉知中展开的事物都有一种开放性。然而,在这里,当各种各样的物体通过意识时,注意力往往集中在一个狭窄的视野中的每一个物体

What Is Open Focus?

什么是开放焦点?

Open Focus is the name of an attention training program created by Dr.Lester Fehmi,a neuroscientist and psychologist from Princeton University.Dr.Fehmi found that once our whole brain activity becomes more synchronous in alpha frequency,our mental and physical health improves.He created a series of mind exercises that help to cultivate this brainwave pattern,and he designed a neurofeedback EEG machine that can detect it.

开放焦点是一个注意力训练项目的名称,由普林斯顿大学的神经学家和心理学家 Lester Fehmi 博士创建。费米博士发现,一旦我们的大脑活动在阿尔法频率上变得更加同步,我们的身心健康就会得到改善。他创造了一系列有助于培养这种脑电波模式的思维练习,并设计了一台可以检测脑电波的神经反馈机器。

On the basis of his findings,Dr.Fehmi developed The Four Attention Styles theory,which describes four different ways we can pay attention,and relates these styles to brain physiology.

根据他的发现,费米博士发展了四种注意风格理论,它描述了我们注意力的四种不同方式,并将这些风格与大脑生理学联系起来。

According to Dr Fehmi,pain,stress,anxiety,and other challenges make our attention narrow and objective.It is natural to narrow our attention(focus)on pain or a problem in order to deal with it efficiently,but most people overuse this style in everyday life.They are unaware that it keeps them in continuous'fight or flight'mode(see this post).Moreover,habitual focusing creates an impression that the reality consists of separated objects,since we can focus on only one thing at a time,leaving the rest outside of our focus.It can make us feel distant,alienated,and lonely.

根据 Fehmi 博士的说法,疼痛、压力、焦虑和其他挑战使我们的注意力变得狭隘和客观。为了有效地处理疼痛或问题,将注意力集中在疼痛或问题上是很自然的,但是大多数人在日常生活中过度使用这种方式。他们没有意识到这使他们处于持续的"战斗或逃跑"模式(见本文)。此外,习惯性的专注会造成一种印象,即现实是由分离的对象组成的,因为我们一次只能专注于一件事情,而把其余的事情留在我们的注意力之外。它会让我们感到疏远、疏远和孤独。

Dr.Fehmi says we can begin relating to what's difficult in a more balanced,accepting way by diffusing our attention.Diffusing allows us to see the big picture and connect(immerse)with its elements.It helps to realign with the world and to create healthy relationships.This style is linked to the'rest and digest'part of our physiology and makes the whole brain activity more synchronous in alpha frequency,which can be confirmed by Dr.Fehmi's machine(see graph below).

费米博士说,我们可以通过分散注意力的方式,以一种更平衡、更接受的方式,开始处理困难的事情。扩散可以让我们看到的大图片和连接(沉浸)与其元素。它有助于与世界重新结合,建立健康的人际关系。这种方式与我们生理机能的"休息和消化"部分有关,使得整个大脑活动在阿尔法频率上更加同步,这一点可以通过费米博士的机器得到证实(见下图)

Dr.Fehmi suggests everyone's attention should be flexible,meaning that you can alternate between'narrow and objective'and'diffused and immersed'styles of attention or balance all at the same time.Dr.Fehmi says that the way we pay attention is directly linked to our well-being.Once you are able to balance your attention,you can positively influence your mind and body.

费米博士建议每个人的注意力都应该是灵活的,这意味着你可以同时在狭隘和客观以及分散和沉浸的注意力或平衡方式之间交替。费米博士说,我们注意的方式直接关系到我们的幸福。一旦你能够平衡你的注意力,你就可以积极地影响你的身心。

During Open Focus training,we practice diffusing by becoming simultaneously aware of many objects.The object can be everything you can focus on,like a physical object,a sound,a taste,a thought,a feeling,a sensation from the body,etc.Then you can progress to awareness of the space between objects,like the space between physical objects,the silence between sounds,or the breaks between thoughts,etc.Finally,you become aware of space between and inside objects which,according to Dr.Fehmi,helps us achieve diffused and immersed style.In this style of attending,all objects(including yourself)dissolve in space and you immerse with reality,becoming fully connected.

在开放焦点的训练中,我们通过同时意识到许多物体来练习扩散。对象可以是你能关注的一切,比如一个物体,一个声音,一个味道,一个想法,一种感觉,一种来自身体的感觉,等等。然后你可以进步到对物体之间空间的感知,比如物体之间的空间,声音之间的沉默,或者思想之间的间断,等等。最后,你会意识到物体之间和物体内部的空间,按照 Fehmi 博士的说法,这有助于我们实现扩散和沉浸的风格。在这种参与方式中,所有的物体(包括你自己)都溶入空间,你沉浸在现实中,变得完全连接起来。

Are Mindfulness and Open Focus Complementary?

正念和开放焦点是互补的吗?

Open Focus and Mindfulness are not distinct and competing practices but rather highly complementary.

开放聚焦和正念并不是截然不同的竞争性实践,而是高度互补的。

Mindfulness helps us to learn to pay attention to our experience and to notice how we are relating to it.Open Focus then builds upon the benefits and skills of Mindfulness by training us not just to pay attention,but to be more aware of how we are paying attention and to be more flexible in our attention styles.

正念可以帮助我们学会关注我们的经历,并注意到我们是如何与之相关联的。然后,开放关注建立在正念的好处和技能的基础上,通过训练我们不仅要集中注意力,而且要更清楚地意识到我们是如何集中注意力的,并且在集中注意力的方式上更加灵活。

We then have the benefits of two complementary practices available to us:learning to pay attention and being flexible in how we pay attention.We could say that Mindfulness is an excellent foundation for Open Focus training and that Open Focus helps us to get the most from Mindfulness training.

然后,我们可以从两种互补的实践中获益:学会关注和灵活地关注。我们可以说,正念是开放焦点训练的一个很好的基础,开放焦点帮助我们从正念训练中获得最多。

What Can Open Focus Offer Mindfulness?

开放式专注能给正念带来什么?

As mentioned,much Mindfulness practice is based on a narrow way of paying attention(that is,we are focused on one object).Although it is useful in helping us to be more aware of what is happening in the moment,overusing this style may lead to tightness and overexertion in unexperienced practitioners,since many people think they have a choice of staying watchful(mindful)of what is happening,or they slip into daydreaming.They keep trying harder and it makes them exhausted and it sometimes leads to frustration and disappointment.

正如前面提到的,很多正念练习都是基于一种狭窄的注意力集中方式(也就是说,我们只关注一个对象)。虽然它有助于帮助我们更多地了解当下正在发生的事情,但过度使用这种风格可能会导致缺乏经验的从业者感到紧张和过度劳累,因为许多人认为他们可以选择对正在发生的事情保持警惕(留心),或者他们陷入白日梦。他们不断地努力,这使他们精疲力尽,有时会导致挫折和失望。

We therefore propose that Open Focus can bring to Mindfulness the idea of paying attention in the diffused style and the concept of attention flexibility.

因此,我们认为开放焦点可以将注意力分散的风格和注意灵活性的概念引入正念。

Mindfulness practitioners who learn how to diffuse their attention may find that it helps them to progress.There are several reason for this.

那些学习如何分散注意力的正念修行者可能会发现这有助于他们进步。这里有几个原因。

The diffused attention style tends to quickly quiet internal chatter.For example,it is sometimes enough to become aware of sensations coming from both hands and at the same time to sense peace and calmness of the mind.It is because synchronous alpha brain waves play a top-down inhibitory role in the brain network.The quiet mind makes observing without judgment much easier.

分散注意力的风格倾向于迅速平息内部的喋喋不休。例如,有时意识到来自双手的感觉,同时感受到心灵的平静和安宁就足够了。是因为同步α脑电波在脑网络中起着自上而下的抑制作用。安静的头脑使没有判断的观察变得容易得多。

In diffused attention style,you do not redirect your attention from one object to another,but rather redistribute it between many objects,which are attended at the same time.The only way to do it is to attend objects in a very soft(less rigid,relaxed)way.This skill can then be used in everyday life.For example,you can stay continuously aware of breathing while listening to someone talking to you and there is no struggle between competing objects in your awareness.It helps to continuously sense the present moment and it has very practical applications(see this post).

在分散注意力的风格中,你不会将注意力从一个对象转移到另一个对象,而是在同时注意的许多对象之间重新分配。唯一的方法就是以一种非常柔和(不那么严格、放松)的方式参与对象。这种技能可以在日常生活中使用。例如,你可以在听别人和你说话的时候不断地意识到自己的呼吸,你意识中的竞争对象之间没有斗争。它有助于持续感知当下的时刻,并且它有非常实际的应用(见这篇文章)

It is important to note that in this style,one of the objects you pay attention to could be your daydreaming.Including daydreaming into the diffused attention helps to reduce struggle with it during practice.It is possible(and quite easy)to accept daydreaming as one of many objects you pay attention to(see this post).It can be easily extended to everyday life and it helps to stay present.

重要的是要注意,在这种风格中,你关注的对象之一可能是你的白日梦。把白日梦包括在分散的注意力中有助于减少在练习中与它的斗争。接受白日梦是你所关注的众多事物之一是可能的(也是相当容易的)。它可以很容易地延伸到日常生活中,并且有助于保持活在当下。

In order to become fully aware of the world,it can be helpful to cultivate a more diffused than focused attention style.Focused attention requires one to cut off a lot of what is really happening around us and it restricts experience to a narrow stream of sensations.In the diffused attention style,you are aware of the object and its background(see this post).This may broaden the perspective,helping to put things into context.It may also help to disable an autopilot and develop one's ability to respond as opposite to reacting.

为了充分认识世界,培养一种比集中注意力更广泛的注意风格是有帮助的。集中注意力要求我们切断周围真正发生的事情,它将体验限制在一个狭窄的感觉流。在分散注意力的风格,你知道的对象和它的背景(见这篇文章)。这可能会拓宽视野,有助于将事物置于语境中。它也可能有助于关闭自动驾驶仪,发展一个人的反应能力。

As mentioned previously,Open Focus exercises cultivate an awareness of space around and inside objects.Once a practitioner is aware of space inside the object,it may become softer,lighter,and easier to be with and observe(for example when we attend an unwanted emotion).By switching to a diffused attention style,the difficulty may be diluted by a broader spectrum of attention.This could be likened to putting a teaspoon of salt in an egg cup filled with water and tasting it—the water would taste very salty.If the same teaspoon of salt were put in a swimming pool,it would be difficult to taste the salt.Mindfulness enables us to be aware that there is salt in the water,but Open Focus allows us to experience the salt in the context of the swimming pool rather than the egg cup!

正如前面提到的,开放焦点练习培养对物体周围和内部空间的意识。一旦练习者意识到物体内部的空间,它可能会变得更柔软、更轻盈,更容易与人相处和观察(例如,当我们参与一种不想要的情绪时)。通过转换到一种分散注意力的方式,这种困难可能会被更广泛的注意力所冲淡。这就好比把一茶匙盐放入一个装满水的鸡蛋杯中,然后品尝它——水尝起来会很咸。如果把同样一茶匙的盐放在游泳池里,就很难尝到盐的味道。正念可以让我们意识到水里有盐,但是打开焦点让我们在游泳池里体验盐,而不是在鸡蛋杯里!

The diffused and immersed attention style helps to dissolve objects like pain or unwanted feelings.Mindfulness practitioners are sometimes encouraged to bring attention to an ache in the back and to observe how this ache feels,exploring how it would be to allow the ache to be there.In Open Focus,they might feel the ache but at the same time feel the space around and in the ache together with the space in the room.In addition,they might imagine that we are part of the ache itself,allowing themselves to become immersed in the ache.This sometimes makes the pain or feeling softer,blurred with its background,and then it may naturally and effortlessly dissolve.The dissolving pain and unwanted feelings process is well documented in Dr Fehmi's book.

分散和沉浸式的注意力有助于消除像疼痛或不想要的感觉这样的对象。正念练习者有时被鼓励去关注背部的疼痛,观察这种疼痛的感觉,探索疼痛是如何存在的。在开放焦点中,他们可能会感觉到疼痛,但同时也会感觉到周围的空间和疼痛,以及房间里的空间。此外,他们可能会想象我们是疼痛本身的一部分,让自己沉浸在疼痛之中。这有时会使疼痛或感觉更加柔和,背景模糊,然后它可能自然而毫不费力地溶解。消除疼痛和不想要的感觉的过程在费米博士的书中有很好的记载。

Conclusion

总结

Mindfulness teaches us to pay attention to our experiences so that we can interrupt habitual patterns of relating to ourselves and the world that may not be helpful for us.Open Focus enhances Mindfulness practice by teaching us not just to pay attention,but to bring more awareness to how we are paying attention.

正念教导我们关注自己的经历,这样我们就可以中断与自己和世界相关的习惯模式,这些模式可能对我们没有帮助。开放关注不仅教会我们注意力,还教会我们更多地意识到我们是如何注意的,从而增强了正念练习。

As this article has demonstrated,these are two highly complementary and mutually reinforcing practices.Ultimately,with both we can learn to be present and be flexible in how we are present,after which we may uncover an unlimited sense of peace and love that lies beneath the'noise'that we are usually confronted with and try to suppress.

正如本文所展示的,这是两个高度互补和相辅相成的实践。最终,通过这两种方式,我们可以学会活在当下,灵活处理我们的现在,之后我们可能会发现一种无限的平和和爱,这种平和和爱隐藏在我们经常面对和试图压制的噪音之下。

In scientific terms,this may be regarded as homeostasis;in more spiritual language,this may be regarded as revealing our true nature or higher self.These practices may lead us to fulfil our personal and evolutionary potential and to live lives with grace and ease.

用科学的术语来说,这可以被看作是内稳态;用更具灵性的语言来说,这可以被看作是揭示我们的真实本性或更高的自我。这些实践可能会引导我们发挥我们个人和进化的潜力,过上优雅而舒适的生活。

How You Can Try Mindfulness and Open Focus

如何尝试正念和开放式专注

We could write a lot but more about Mindfulness and Open Focus,but the best way to know them is to feel them!

我们可以写很多关于正念和开放焦点的文章,但是了解它们最好的方法就是去感受它们!

You can try some good Mindfulness exercises here:Breathing Into Being,Taking In The Good,Self Compassion.

你可以在这里尝试一些很好的正念练习:呼吸成为存在,吸收好的,自我同情。

There is a choice of Open Focus exercises on Dr Fehmi's and Tomasz's website(the main difference is that most of Tomasz's exercises are shorter and they are designed to introduce diffusing and to bring a quick and noticeable experience).

Fehmi 博士和 Tomasz 的网站上可以选择打开焦点练习(主要区别在于 Tomasz 的大部分练习都比较短,而且这些练习旨在引入扩散并带来快速和明显的体验)

This article was written with Mrs.Sarah Gulland a Mindfulness teacher who works from London,Guildford and Sussex.

这篇文章是和 Sarah Gulland 夫人一起写的,她是一位来自伦敦、吉尔福德和苏塞克斯的正念教师。

来源:

https://www.collective-evolution.com/2020/09/15/neuroscience-learns-what-buddhism-has-known-for-ages-mindfulness-3/

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