安德鲁•杰克逊关闭美国第二银行

2020年1月14日16:35:23安德鲁•杰克逊关闭美国第二银行已关闭评论 899 3781字阅读12分36秒
摘要

1833年9月10日,安德鲁·杰克逊总统宣布政府将不再使用美国第二银行,美国的国家银行。然后,在所谓的”银行战争”的最后一轮攻击中,他动用了自己的行政权力,将所有联邦资金撤出了银行


President Andrew Jackson announces that the government will no longer use the Second Bank of the United States,the country's national bank,on September 10,1833.He then used his executive power to remove all federal funds from the bank,in the final salvo of what is referred to as the"Bank War."

1833910日,安德鲁·杰克逊总统宣布政府将不再使用美国第二银行,美国的国家银行。然后,在所谓的"银行战争"的最后一轮攻击中,他动用了自己的行政权力,将所有联邦资金撤出了银行

A national bank had first been created by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton in 1791 to serve as a central repository for federal funds.The Second Bank of the United States was founded in 1816;five years after this first bank's charter had expired.Traditionally,the bank had been run by a board of directors with ties to industry and manufacturing,and therefore was biased toward the urban and industrial northern states.Jackson,the epitome of the frontiersman,resented the bank's lack of funding for expansion into the unsettled Western territories.Jackson also objected to the bank's unusual political and economic power and to the lack of congressional oversight over its business dealings.

1791年,乔治华盛顿和亚历山大·汉密尔顿银行首次创建了国家银行,作为联邦基金的中央储存库。美利坚合众国第二银行成立于1816年,也就是第一家银行特许状失效五年之后。传统上,该银行由与工业和制造业有联系的董事会管理,因此偏向于北部城市和工业州。作为拓荒者的代表,杰克逊对银行缺乏向不稳定的西部地区扩张的资金表示不满。杰克逊还反对该银行不同寻常的政治和经济权力,以及国会对其业务交易缺乏监督。

Jackson,known as obstinate and brutish but a man of the common people,called for an investigation into the bank's policies and political agenda as soon as he settled in to the White House in March 1829.To Jackson,the bank symbolized how a privileged class of businessmen oppressed the will of the common people of America.He made clear that he planned to challenge the constitutionality of the bank,much to the horror of its supporters.In response,the director of the bank,Nicholas Biddle,flexed his own political power,turning to members of Congress,including the powerful KentuckySenator Henry Clay and leading businessmen sympathetic to the bank,to fight Jackson.

18293月入主白宫后,以顽固残忍著称的普通人杰克逊就呼吁对银行的政策和政治议程进行调查。对杰克逊来说,这家银行象征着一个特权阶级的商人是如何压迫美国普通民众的意愿的。他明确表示,他计划挑战世行最高合宪,这让世行的支持者感到非常恐惧。作为回应,该行行长尼古拉斯比德尔(Nicholas Biddle)展示了自己的政治权力,转而求助于国会议员,包括势力强大的肯塔基州参议员亨利克莱(Henry Clay)和同情该行的主要商界人士,与杰克逊对。

Later that year,Jackson presented his case against the bank in a speech to Congress;to his chagrin,its members generally agreed that the bank was indeed constitutional.Still,controversy over the bank lingered for the next three years.In 1832,the divisiveness led to a split in Jackson's cabinet and,that same year,the obstinate president vetoed an attempt by Congress to draw up a new charter for the bank.All of this took place during Jackson's bid for re-election;the bank's future was the focal point of a bitter political campaign between the Democratic incumbent Jackson and his opponent Henry Clay.Jackson's promises to empower the"common man"of America appealed to the voters and paved the way for his victory.He felt he had received a mandate from the public to close the bank once and for all,despite Congress'objections.Biddle vowed to continue to fight the president,saying that"just because he has scalped Indians and imprisoned Judges[does not mean]he is to have his way with the bank."

同年晚些时候,杰克逊在国会的一次演讲中提出了反对该银行的理由;令他懊恼的是,其成员普遍认为该银行确实符合宪法。尽管如此,围绕该银行的争议仍然持续了三年。1832年,不和导致了杰克逊内阁的分裂,同年,这位顽固的总统否决了国会为美利坚银行起草新章程的企图。所有这一切都发生在杰克逊竞选连任期间;银行的未来是民主党现任总统杰克逊与其对手亨利克莱(Henry Clay)之间激烈政治竞选的焦点。杰克逊对美国"普通人"的承诺吸引了选民,并为他的胜利铺平了道路。他觉得自己得到了公众的授权,不顾国会的反对,一劳永逸地关闭了这家银行。比德尔发誓要继续与总统斗争,他说,"仅仅因为他剥了印度人的头皮,关押了法官,并不意味着他可以在银行里为所欲为。"

On September 10,1833,Jackson removed all federal funds from the Second Bank of the U.S.,redistributing them to various state banks,which were popularly known as"pet banks."In addition,he announced that deposits to the bank would not be accepted after October 1.Finally,Jackson had succeeded in destroying the bank;its charter officially expired in 1836.

1833910日,杰克逊从美国第二银行取出所有联邦资金,重新分配给众所周知的"宠物银行"各州银行
此外,他还宣布,在101日之后,银行将不接受存款。最后,杰克逊成功地摧毁了这家银行;它的章程于1836年正式到期。

Jackson did not emerge unscathed from the scandal.In 1834,Congress censured Jackson for what they viewed as his abuse of presidential power during the Bank War.

杰克逊并非毫发无损地从丑闻中脱身。1834年,国会谴责杰克逊在银行战争期间滥用总统权力。

来源:

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/andrew-jackson-shuts-down-second-bank-of-the-u-s

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