世界各地的公立学校都在以惊人相似的方式发展

2020年9月23日08:36:26世界各地的公立学校都在以惊人相似的方式发展已关闭评论 628 7686字阅读25分37秒
摘要

如果你从零开始,想帮助孩子成为有贡献、全面发展的社会成员,你会发明这个计划吗?肯定不会。其他人都没有。几乎没有其他人。

If you were starting from scratch, and wanted to help children become contributing, well-rounded members of society, would you have invented this plan? Surely not. Nobody else did. Well, almost nobody else.

如果你从零开始,想帮助孩子成为有贡献、全面发展的社会成员,你会发明这个计划吗?肯定不会。其他人都没有。几乎没有其他人。

All around the world, students attend schools which have an astonishing degree of similarity.

在世界各地,学生上的学校有着惊人的相似程度。

Children are required to attend.

•要求儿童参加。

It runs from kindergarten to grade 12.

•从幼儿园到12年级。

Students are divided by age, not by what they need or want to learn, nor by what they've already learned.

•按年龄划分,学生不需要,也不想学什么。

The teacher is the authority. The children provide heads which the teacher is supposed to fill.

•教师是权威。孩子们提供老师应该填充的头。

There is little or no opportunity for students to explore a subject in depth, to develop a passion, to hone a skill.

•学生很少或根本没有机会深入探究某一学科,培养激情,磨练技能。

There's an hour for one subject, then an hour for another.

•一个主题有一个小时,另一个主题有一个小时。

Teachers are considered qualified if, and only if, they have the required certificate.

•教师只有在具备所需证书的情况下才被视为合格教师。

Whether they can teach well is irrelevant.

•他们能否教好并不重要。

Whether they love or hate children is irrelevant.

•他们是爱孩子还是恨孩子无关紧要。

Whether childhood is a happy time for anybody, is irrelevant. That's not on the spreadsheet.

•对于任何人来说,童年是否是一段快乐的时光,与此无关。电子表格上没有。

Curriculum is fixed, and taught at a fixed rate, even if that doesn't work for some students… even if it doesn't work for anybody at all.

•课程是固定的,并且以固定的速度教授,即使这对某些学生不起作用……即使对任何人都不起作用。

It centers around a standardized curriculum and lesson plans, not real-life experiences.

•它以标准化课程和课程计划为中心,而不是现实生活中的体验。

Students and teachers alike believe that the main purpose of school is preparing students to pass the exam.

•学生和教师都认为学校的主要目的是让学生通过考试。

Whether in colonial Madagascar of 1908 (above) or 1920s America (below), public schools have evolved in remarkably similar ways.

无论是1908年的马达加斯加殖民地(上图)还是20世纪20年代的美国(下图) ,公立学校的发展方式都惊人地相似。

If you were starting from scratch, and wanted to help children become contributing, well-rounded members of society, would you have invented this plan? Surely not. Nobody else did. Well, almost nobody else.

如果你从零开始,想帮助孩子们成为有贡献的、全面发展的社会成员,你会发明这个计划吗?当然不是。其他人都没有。好吧,几乎没有其他人。

For many centuries, the favorite pastime of European rulers was invading one another to win more territory.

几个世纪以来,欧洲统治者最喜欢的消遣就是互相侵略以获取更多的领土。

King Frederick William III of Prussia encountered a problem: Most of his troops were farmers who had been drafted to serve him. When the enemy shot at them, they had an annoying tendency to go home to their family and farm. He wouldn't win more land with that army! He wanted soldiers who, if ordered to make a suicidal charge, would blindly obey — not soldiers who might shoot their captain and go home.

腓特烈·威廉三世遇到了一个问题: 他的大部分军队都是被征来为他服务的农民。当敌人向他们射击时,他们有一种恼人的倾向,就是回到自己的家和农场。他不可能用那支军队赢得更多的土地!他希望士兵们在接到自杀冲锋的命令时盲目服从,而不是开枪打死自己的上尉然后回家的士兵。

To create them, Prussia instituted a system of schools that focused on making students respect and obey the authority figure — a teacher. (1)

为了创造这些机会,普鲁士建立了一套学校体系,重点是让学生尊重和服从权威人物——教师。(1)

When young men arrived for their first day in uniform, they already knew how to stand in a straight line. Prussia became a military powerhouse. It expanded its territory, and today we call it Germany.

当年轻人穿上制服的第一天来到这里时,他们已经知道如何站成一条直线。普鲁士成为了一个军事强国。它扩张了自己的领土,今天我们称之为德国。

But the king couldn't tell parents, "Send us your children so we can teach them to be cannon fodder." Schools also taught reading and arithmetic. History does not tell us if the primary goal was to mold obedient soldiers or obedient citizens. Prussia got both. Students did not, however, learn to think independently. The teacher had the answer; the students' job was to memorize it.

但是国王不能告诉父母,"把你们的孩子送来,我们可以教他们当炮灰。"学校也教阅读和算术。历史没有告诉我们,主要目标是塑造服从的士兵还是服从的公民。普鲁士两样都得到了。然而,学生并没有学会独立思考。老师有答案,学生的工作就是记住它。

This, alone, would have been enough to persuade other rulers to adopt what became known as the Prussian System. Soon another incentive appeared: The Industrial Revolution.

仅此一点,就足以说服其他统治者采用后来被称为普鲁士体系的制度。很快另一个动机出现了: 工业革命。

Previously, most Europeans lived in the countryside and worked for themselves — typically as farmers, shopkeepers, blacksmiths, or carpenters.

以前,大多数欧洲人生活在农村,为自己工作ーー通常是当农民、店主、铁匠或木匠。

The invention of the steam engine changed all that. Within a few decades, urban factories sprang up. Farmers — sometimes seeking a better life, other times forced off their land — moved to the city. But they weren't reliable factory workers.

蒸汽机的发明改变了这一切。几十年间,城市工厂如雨后春笋般涌现出来。农民ーー有时为了寻求更好的生活,有时被迫离开他们的土地ーー搬到了城市。但他们不是可靠的工厂工人。

Owners needed workers who would show up on time, follow orders, and accept boredom as their fate in life. Prussian-style schools churned them out.

老板们需要那些按时上班、服从命令、接受无聊是他们生活命运的工人。普鲁士式的学校造就了他们。

More support came from a different direction. Horace Mann, an American reformer, thought the Prussian school system could improve the lives of poor people in the United States. He got Massachusetts to adopt it and other states soon followed.

更多的支持来自不同的方向。美国改革家 Horace Mann 认为普鲁士的学校制度可以改善美国穷人的生活。他让马萨诸塞州采纳了这一法案,其他州也很快采纳了这一法案。

European nations introduced the Prussian system in their colonies. It created the docile, low-level workforce that they needed, while appearing to benefit the local population.

欧洲各国在其殖民地引进了普鲁士制度。它创造了他们所需要的温顺、低层次的劳动力,同时似乎造福了当地人民。

In most countries today, school enrollment has increased but the Prussian system still predominates.

在今天的大多数国家,入学率有所增加,但普鲁士制度仍占主导地位。

Today, further support for this Prussian system comes from a new source: The education industry. A vast network — administrators, teachers, and government officials; textbook and curriculum publishers; teacher training colleges; aid workers in developing countries; and the inevitable consultants — all derive their income from the public school system that has evolved.

今天,对这种普鲁士制度的进一步支持来自一个新的来源: 教育产业。一个庞大的网络ーー行政人员、教师和政府官员、教科书和课程出版商、师范学院、发展中国家的援助工作者,以及不可避免的咨询顾问ーー都从不断演变的公立学校系统中获得收入。

Many of them genuinely care about children and education. But they also care about their income and job security. That shapes their thinking, and limits their enthusiasm for deep change.

他们中的许多人真正关心孩子和教育。但他们也关心自己的收入和工作保障。这就塑造了他们的思想,限制了他们对深刻变革的热情。

And so here we are today, with a model of schooling intended to mold soldiers who wouldn't run away when the enemy started shooting, and which evolved to meet the needs of factory owners, but also to make everyone feel good about sending their children into it. The origins of this system are still in evidence.

所以今天我们在这里,用一种教育模式来塑造士兵,当敌人开始射击时,他们不会逃跑,这种模式进化来满足工厂主的需要,同时也让每个人对把自己的孩子送进工厂感到高兴。这个制度的起源仍然很明显。

This year the Global Partnership for Education, a Western NGO that has spent $6 billion to influence school policies in developing regions, proudly announced its latest grants with this photo of schoolgirls marching in lockstep. (The boys, in back, aren't so enthusiastic about the lockstep thing.) (2)

今年,全球教育伙伴关系---- 一个西方的非政府组织,花费了60亿美元来影响发展中地区的学校政策---- 自豪地宣布了它最新的拨款,这张照片上的女学生步调一致地游行。(后排的男孩子们对步调一致的事情不是很热心。)(2)

A never-ending stream of critics, in the global South and North alike, see plainly that the system doesn't work, and think this is so obvious, it shouldn't be hard to improve it.

在全球范围内,无论是南方国家还是北方国家,无休止的批评声浪都清楚地看到这个系统不起作用,并认为这是显而易见的,改善它应该不难。

But the system does work — for many people. Not only those in the education industry, but also for the global elite. And so, it continues to thrive. Even if children do not.

但是这个系统确实对很多人有效。不仅是那些教育行业的人,还有全球的精英。因此,它继续蓬勃发展。即使孩子们没有。

What can YOU do?

你能做什么?

My goal here has been to give a brief history of the school model that has spread to much of the world. There were schools long before this, but the earliest schools focused on learning. This system does not.

我在这里的目的是简要介绍已经传播到世界许多地方的学校模式的历史。在这之前很久就有学校了,但是最早的学校专注于学习。这个系统没有。

If this is what you've got, and you want to change it, I can't tell you what to do. Too many people are already trying to run it from afar! But I'll suggest a starting point:

如果这就是你所拥有的,而你想要改变它,我不能告诉你该怎么做。太多的人已经试图从远处运行它!但是我会提出一个起点:

Set a goal to talk with five people in the next three days — family, friends, other parents, government officials — about this. Ask what they think. Discuss your ideas.

设定一个目标,在接下来的三天里与五个人——家人、朋友、其他父母、政府官员——讨论这个问题。问问他们的想法。讨论你的想法。

If you do this, I'd love to hear what comes of it, either as a comment (below) or a reply to the Tweet on 17 Sept. 2020 (at @k_colonialism) that has brought many people to this page.

如果你这么做了,我很想听听你的看法,无论是评论(见下文) ,还是回复2020917日的推文(@k _ 殖民主义) ,这让很多人来到了这个页面。

And of course, we welcome links to this page on social media or your website. If you found this informative, your friends and followers are likely to, as well.

当然,我们欢迎在社交媒体或你的网站上链接到这个页面。如果你发现这个信息量很大,你的朋友和追随者也会这么认为。

By Sasha Alyson

转自:https://eraoflight.com/2020/09/22/public-schools-have-evolved-in-remarkably-similar-ways-all-over-the-world/

  • 本文由 发表于 2020年9月23日08:36:26
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